Maria Ackrén is an associate professor of political science in the Department of Social Sciences at the University of Greenland (Ilisimatusarfik). Her research interests include models of autonomy, autonomist and secessionist movements, Arctic relations with a special focus on Greenland, island studies and comparative methodology.
His Serene Highness Prince Albert, Alexandre, Louis, Pierre, Sovereign Prince of Monaco, Marquis of Baux, was born on March 14, 1958. His Highness is the son of Prince Rainier III, Louis Henri-Maxence-Bertrand and Princess Grace, née Kelly.
Prince Albert II succeeded his father, Prince Rainier III, who died on April 6, 2005. On July 12, 2005, at the end of the period of official mourning, the Prince's accession to the throne was celebrated. Since 1984, Prince Albert II had assisted his father in conducting the affairs of state.
In 2006, Prince Albert II visited the North Pole by dog sled from the Russian base of Barneo, 120 kilometers away. This journey was the opportunity for him to pay tribute to his great-great-grandfather, Prince Albert I of Monaco, a pioneer of modern oceanography, who, in 1906, set out to Spitzberg, in the archipelago of Svalbard, the most successful of his four Arctic exploration campaigns. The trip also helped to raise the world's awareness of the planetary challenges which, in the short term, represent risks related to climate change and the dangers of industrial pollution.
That same year, the Prince set up the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation dedicated to protecting the environment. It encourages sustainable and fair management of natural resources and places man at the center of its projects. It supports the implementation of innovative and ethical solutions in three broad areas: climate change, water and biodiversity.
In 2009, Prince Albert II undertook a three-week scientific journey in the Antarctic. He visited a large number of scientific stations and rejoined the South Pole in the company of the explorer Mike Horn. They made a film of this journey, "Antarctique 2009, Terre en Alerte" ("Antarctic 2009, Earth on Alert"), which was presented to the principality's inhabitants in April 2009.
Gudmundur Alfredsson is an Icelandic lawyer. He graduated from the University of Iceland in 1975 and New York University in 1976 and completed Harvard Law School 1982 with a dissertation on the legal status of Greenland.
He is a professor in the Polar Law master program at the University of Akureyri, an adjunct professor at the University of Greenland and a visiting professor at the Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law in Lund (RWI).
Mr. Alfredsson was an invited professor at the Law Faculty of the University of Strasbourg (2006 to 2012), a guest professor at the China University of Political Science and Law in Beijing (2010 to 2012), a law professor at Lund University (1995 to 2008), director at RWI (1995 to 2006) and a staff member with the United Nations secretariat in New York (the Office of Legal Affairs, 1983 to 1985) and Geneva (the Centre for Human Rights, 1983 to 1995).
He was a member of the United Nations Sub-Commission for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights (2004 to 2006), chairman of the United Nations Working Group on Minorities (2006), a member appointed by the Greenlandic government on the Greenlandic-Danish Self-Governance Commission (2004 to 2008), a member of the Working Group on International Law Issues of the North Atlantic Group in the Danish parliament (2002 to 2004), a member of the Working Group on International and Constitutional Law for the Self-Governance Commission of the Greenland Home Rule Government (2001 to 2003), and chairman of expert consultations that drafted the OSCE Lund Recommendations on the Effective Participation of National Minorities in Public Affairs (1998 to 1999).
He is editor-in-chief of the Yearbook of Polar Law (with Timo Koivurova) and the International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, and is co-editor of the Nordic Journal of International Law. Mr. Alfredsson has edited several books and is the author of more than 200 scholarly articles in books and journals and reports for governments and global and regional organizations.
Nils Andersen joined A.P. Moller-Maersk in 2007 when he took over as the company's fourth group chief executive officer. Up until then, since 2005, he had been on the company's board of directors.
Before joining A.P. Moller-Maersk, since 2001, Mr. Andersen held the position of chief executive officer of Carlsberg A/S. Prior to that he held a number of senior positions, both internationally and in Denmark.
Mr. Andersen graduated with a master of science in economics from Aarhus University in 1982.
He has been a member of the European Round Table of Industrialists (ERT) since 2001 and is a member of the EU-Russia Industrialists' Round Table (IRT).
Nils Andreassen is the executive director of the Institute of the North. His background in rural and international development, Alaska policy issues and leadership development fit well within the Institute's mission to research commonly owned lands, seas and resources while educating and engaging Alaskans in the responsibilities of that ownership. The Institute has a legacy working on Arctic infrastructure priorities and policies that serve to strengthen and connect northern communities.
Mr. Andreassen has a degree in peace and development from the University of Bradford in England and has lived in Anchorage, Alaska, since 2002. He is on the University of Alaska Anchorage College of Education advisory board, the Independent Sector's NGen advisory board, and the boards of directors of Commonwealth North and the Renewable Energy Alaska Project (REAP). He is married and has a 10-year-old daughter.
Guðfinna Aðalgeirsdóttir is an associate professor in glaciology at the University of Iceland. Her current research focus is on the interaction of climate and ice sheets and the development of models for the past, present and future evolution of Icelandic glaciers and the Greenland ice sheet.
Dr. Aðalgeirsdóttir is working on coupling ice sheet models with global and regional climate models, in collaboration with the Danish Meteorological Institute, with the aim to refine estimates of sea level rise due to changes in ice sheet mass balance and ice dynamics. She has studied glaciers in Iceland, Alaska, Greenland and Antarctica and participated in extensive field campaigns in these areas.
She completed her dr. sc. nat. (doctor of natural sciences) from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich with thesis work on numerical modeling of flow dynamics of the Vatnajökull ice cap in Iceland. At the University of Alaska Fairbanks, she completed a master of science in geophysics and geology, studying the surface elevation and volume changes on the Harding Icefield in south central Alaska with laser altimetry.
Dr. Aðalgeirsdóttir is a steering committee member of the ice2sea program, a flagship program funded by the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme with the goal to improve projections of the contribution of ice to sea level rise. She is also a steering committee member in the Nordic Centre of Excellence SVALI (Stability and Variations of Arctic Land Ice), a top-level research initiative of the Nordic Council of Ministers.
Sandra Maria Rodrigues Balão holds a master's degree and a Ph.D. from the Higher Institute for Social and Political Sciences at the University of Lisbon.
Her main areas of interest are globalization and military strategic studies; the international system; multilevel power politics; foreign policy; geopolitics; global studies; elite theory; and governance, democracy and state studies. She has focused her area study interests on the Arctic (security challenges in a broad sense), with a focus on the European Union's strategy for the Arctic region, as well as the United States and NATO areas.
Dr. Balão teaches undergraduate, graduate and advanced political science, strategy and international relations studies courses. She is an integrated researcher at the Center for Administration and Public Policies (CAPP), where she coordinates the stream of politics and government issues, and is also a cooperative researcher at the Eastern Issues Institute (IO).
She has presented papers at international conferences and is a peer reviewer of scientific journals such as IPSR, Empedocles, Proelium, Nação e Defesa and Geopolítica, among others. Some of her scientific research outputs have been published.
She has successfully completed several courses from the Portuguese National Defense Institute (National Defense Ministry) and is a Portuguese National Defense Auditor.
For three decades, James Balog has been a leader in photographing and interpreting the natural environment. An avid mountaineer with a graduate degree in geography and geomorphology, Mr. Balog is equally at home on a Himalayan peak or a whitewater river, the African savannah or polar icecaps.
To reveal the impact of climate change, Mr. Balog founded the Extreme Ice Survey (EIS), the most wide-ranging, ground-based, photographic study of glaciers ever conducted. The project is featured in the highly acclaimed documentary "Chasing Ice," which won the award for Excellence in Cinematography at the 2012 Sundance Film Festival, as well as dozens of awards at film festivals worldwide. "Chasing Ice" was shortlisted for the 2013 Academy Awards. It has been screened at the White House, the U.S. Congress, the U.K. House of Commons and the United Nations. It has been the subject of features on "NBC Nightly News," "Nightline," the "Late Show with David Letterman," PBS's "Moyers & Company" and "Real Time with Bill Maher."
Mr. Balog has been honored with many awards, including, in recent years, the Heinz Award, the Missouri School of Journalism's Honor Medal for Distinguished Service, the Aspen Institute's Visual Arts & Design Award, and the North American Nature Photography Association's "Outstanding Photographer of the Year" award. He recently received an honorary doctor of science from the University of Alberta and the American Geophysical Union Presidential Citation for Science and Society.
Mr. Balog is the author of eight books. "ICE: Portraits of Vanishing Glaciers" was published by Rizzoli in 2012. Among his other titles are "Tree: A New Vision of the American Forest" (2004) and "Survivors: A New Vision of Endangered Wildlife" (1990), hailed as a major conceptual breakthrough in environmental photography.
Mr. Balog lives in the Rocky Mountains, near Boulder, Colorado, with his wife and two daughters.
Ban Ki-Moon is the eighth secretary-general of the United Nations. His priorities have been to mobilize world leaders around a set of new global challenges, from climate change and economic upheaval to pandemics and increasing pressures involving food, energy and water. He has sought to be a bridge-builder, to give voice to the world's poorest and most vulnerable people and to strengthen the organization itself.
Mr. Ban took office on January 1, 2007. On June 21, 2011, he was unanimously re-elected by the General Assembly and will continue to serve until December 31, 2016.
The secretary-general was born in the Republic of Korea on June 13, 1944. He received a bachelor's degree in international relations from Seoul National University in 1970. In 1985, he earned a master's degree in public administration from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.
At the time of his election as secretary-general, Mr. Ban was his country's minister of foreign affairs and trade. His 37 years of service with the ministry included posts in New Delhi, Washington, D.C., and Vienna, and responsibility for a variety of portfolios, including foreign policy adviser to the president, chief national security adviser to the president, deputy minister for policy planning and director-general of American affairs.
Mr. Ban's ties to the United Nations date back to 1975, when he worked for the Foreign Ministry's United Nations division. That work expanded over the years, with assignments that included service as chairman of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization and chef de cabinet during the Republic of Korea's 2001–2002 presidency of the United Nations General Assembly. Mr. Ban has also been actively involved in issues relating to inter-Korean relations.
The secretary-general speaks English, French and Korean. He and his wife, Madam Yoo (Ban) Soon-Taek, whom he met in high school in 1962, have one son, two daughters and three grandchildren. Since 2007, Mrs. Ban has devoted her attention to women's and children's health, including autism, the elimination of violence against women and the campaign to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS.
Tom Barry is the executive secretary for the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), which is the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council. The CAFF Secretariat is based in Akureyri, Iceland.
Mr. Barry has a broad range of experience at national and international levels dealing with strategic planning and organizational development—a primary focus of which has been Arctic issues. He works with a diverse range of stakeholders throughout the Arctic.
Key activities Mr. Barry is currently involved in include the first Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) scheduled for completion this May at the Arctic Council Ministerial. The ABA will create a baseline for use in global and regional assessments of biodiversity and provide a basis to inform and guide future Arctic Council work.
Mr. Barry is also closely involved in the implementation of the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme (CBMP), which is working to facilitate more rapid detection, communication and responses to the significant biodiversity-related trends and pressures affecting the circumpolar world.
Sarah Barton serves as chief strategy officer for Quintillion Networks and Arctic Fibre Inc., now developing a subsea fiber-optic cable between Europe and Asia with spurs to Alaska and Canada.
Working within the private sector as a project manager and strategist, she has led project delivery for high-profile infrastructure and transportation projects in Alaska, including the Anchorage International Airport Redevelopment, the Statewide Ports and Harbors Plan, the Alaska Arctic Deep-Draft Port System Study, the Anchorage Museum and the Statewide Transportation Infrastructure Construction Study for the gas line.
Ms. Barton is active in Arctic policy, and she recently facilitated working sessions of the Arctic Maritime and Aviation Transportation Infrastructure Inventory for the Institute of the North under the Arctic Council. She works statewide with Alaska Native Corporations and the local government, including CIRI, NANA, Doyon, NSB and NWAB, and the cities of Nome, Barrow and Kotzebue, Alaska.
She serves on the Alaska State Committee on Research and is chair of the board of the University of Alaska Honors College. Certified in mediation through the National Public Law Institute, Ms. Barton also holds a master's degree from Temple University. She formerly served as director of Regulatory and Public Affairs for the Municipality of Anchorage's Capital Projects Office.
Senator Mark Begich is in his fifth year representing Alaska in the U.S. Senate, where his primary focus is building a strong Alaska economy.
Already in his short time in the Senate, Senator Begich has risen to key positions for Alaska. He was recently named to the powerful Senate Appropriations Committee, where he will have a hands-on role in needed spending cuts while ensuring Alaska's interests are not forgotten.
Senator Begich was elected to the Senate in 2008 after serving as mayor of Anchorage for nearly six years. Born and raised in Anchorage, Senator Begich's other priorities include reducing the national deficit, tax reform, and building a national energy policy that emphasizes Alaska's oil and gas resources, an Alaska natural gas pipeline and the state's many renewable resources.
In 1988, at age 26, he was the youngest person ever elected to the Anchorage Assembly where he served for nearly 10 years. During that time, his colleagues three times elected him chairman, Anchorage's second-highest political office, and he also served as chair of the budget committee.
From his parents, Senator Begich learned the values of hard work, strength of family, and commitment to community which are the values he has applied to a successful business career and long record of public service.
Senator Begich is married to Deborah Bonito, a successful businesswoman. They have a young son, Jacob. The Begich family enjoys spending time together reading, traveling and enjoying the many great things Alaska has to offer.
Rasmus Gjedssø Bertelsen is an assistant professor of international relations in the Department of Culture and Global Studies at Aalborg University in Denmark. Dr. Bertelsen teaches in graduate programs in development and international relations, European studies and China area studies.
He focuses on the historical, current and future relationships between Denmark and the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Iceland, independence politics, state-building, economic development, capacity-building and the interplay between natural resources and human capital.
Another growing research interest for Dr. Bertelsen is Asia's expanding interest in the Arctic driven by environmental globalization (climate change), economic globalization (the demand for energy, raw materials and new shipping lanes) and the political and economic rise of Asian powers, making them stakeholders in regions around the world, including the Arctic. These processes raise the question of the role of the Arctic in the relations of the Kingdom of Denmark and especially the other small Nordic states with Asian powers.
He studied political science at the University of Copenhagen, the University of Iceland, the University of Geneva, the University of Lausanne and the University of Amsterdam. He received a Ph.D. in international relations from the University of Cambridge and spent a year at Sciences Po. He has held postdoctoral fellowships at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government, the Tokyo Institute of Technology with the United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies and Aalborg University.
Cecilia Bitz is a professor in the Atmospheric Sciences department at the University of Washington. Her research interests include climate dynamics, climate change, paleoclimate, the role of sea ice in the climate system and sea ice model development.
She is currently working on Arctic sea ice prediction. The primary tools for her research are a variety of models, from simple reduced models to sophisticated climate system models.
Dr. Bitz is a member of the advisory boards for the Community Climate System Model and the National Science Foundation's Geosciences division. She recently served on the U.S. National Research Council's Committee on National Security Implications of Climate Change for U.S. Naval Forces.
She earned a Ph.D. in atmospheric sciences from the University of Washington in 1997.
Helgi Björnsson is a research professor in the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland. He studied geophysics at the University of Oslo, where he defended his doctoral thesis, "Hydrology of Ice Caps in Volcanic Regions," and was a professor at the University of Oslo for 10 years.
Mr. Björnsson has been a leading glaciologist in Iceland for 40 years and has published and lectured widely. For many years he was the editor of the scientific journal Jökull and president of the Iceland Glaciological Society. He also served as the vice president of the International Glaciological Society.
He has received various acknowledgements for his scientific contributions. He served as a member of the Science Academy of Iceland (1985) and received a VISA Iceland Award for Science (1999), an honorary doctorate from the University of Stockholm (2002), the University of Iceland Award for Research (2003), the Knight Order of Iceland for contributions to Icelandic and international glaciology and scientific collaboration (2008), and the Icelandic Literary Prize for Nonfiction (2010).
Robert J. Blaauw joined Shell in the Netherlands in 1980. He started in technical and operational functions and thereafter moved to commercial and general management roles in Shell operating companies in the Middle East, Africa and Asia.
Mr. Blaauw then moved to Australia to become Shell's general manager of Exploration and Production and Joint Venture Operations. In 2002, he relocated to Shell's corporate headquarters in the Netherlands, where he served as business development manager for the Caspian Sea region, the Middle East and Russia.
Since 2010, he has managed Shell's Global Arctic Theme (technical, social, environmental and communications). This includes working with strategic partners in support of Shell's business in the Arctic and the International Oil & Gas Producers Association, where Mr. Blaauw chairs the Arctic Task Force, to improve global industry standards in the Arctic.
Mr. Blaauw grew up in the Hague and studied at the Technical University Delft, where he received a master of science in civil engineering.
Patrick Borbey was appointed president of the Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency (CanNor) in December 2011.
In March 2013, Mr. Borbey was appointed chair of the Arctic Council's Senior Arctic Officials (SAO) for Canada's two-year term as chair of the Arctic Council, which will extend from May 2013 to May 2015. As SAO chair, Mr. Borbey will work closely with senior Arctic officials from the eight Arctic states that comprise the Arctic Council, as well as the heads of the council's six Indigenous Permanent Participants, in managing the Arctic Council's activities.
Prior to joining CanNor, Mr. Borbey held the positions of senior assistant deputy minister of treaties and aboriginal government and assistant deputy minister of Northern affairs at Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada.
Mr. Borbey has also worked as assistant deputy minister of corporate services at the Privy Council Office and Health Canada; as associate assistant deputy minister of the First Nations and Inuit Health branch at Health Canada; as director-general of communications at Transport Canada; as director-general of international cultural relations at Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade; as director-general of strategy and plans at Parks Canada; and as director-general of finance at the former Department of Communications and the Department of Canadian Heritage. He also held senior positions at Canada's Department of Labour and at Industry Canada.
Originally from Elliot Lake in Northern Ontario, Canada, Mr. Borbey holds a bachelor of arts in social sciences (with a concentration in political science) and a master of business administration from the University of Ottawa. He is married to Peggy Borbey and has three children: Daniel, Eric and Mathieu.
Scott Borgerson is the chief executive officer of CargoMetrics. Prior to co-founding CargoMetrics, he was a fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations.
A former U.S. Coast Guard officer, Mr. Borgerson has also served as a ship navigator, a patrol boat captain, an assistant professor at the U.S. Coast Guard Academy and the founding managing director of the Academy's Institute for Leadership.
Mr. Borgerson has testified before a number of U.S. Congressional committees, and his op-ed columns and articles have appeared in The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, The Atlantic and Foreign Affairs, among other publications.
Mr. Borgerson earned a bachelor of science from the U.S. Coast Guard Academy as well as a master of arts in law and diplomacy (MALD) and a Ph.D. from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University. He serves on the advisory boards of the Arctic Circle, the Kostas Homeland Security Institute, Catalyst Maritime and the Institute for Global Maritime Studies. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.
With a background in both business and academia, Alexander Borodin in recent years has been actively involved in a number of projects in the Arctic, ranging from governance and business to indigenous subsistence and environmental protection.
Larry Brilliant is the president and CEO of the Skoll Global Threats Fund. He was previously vice president of Google and executive director of Google.org.
Mr. Brilliant is a doctor of medicine (MD) and a master of public health (MPH), board-certified in preventive medicine. In 1985, while in Ann Arbor, Michigan, Mr. Brilliant founded the Seva Foundation, whose projects have given back sight to nearly 3 million people worldwide through work to eliminate preventable and curable blindness. He also co-founded the Well, a pioneering digital community that holds a special place in the history of online communities.
In addition, he worked for WHO and UNICEF in polio eradication and blindness and volunteered as a physician during several disasters, including the Asian tsunami in Sri Lanka and Indonesia and the Bihar floods. After the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001, he volunteered as a first responder for the Center for Disease Control's bioterrorism effort.
Mr. Brilliant was the founding chair of the National Bio-Surveillance Advisory Subcommittee, created by presidential directive, and is a member of the World Economic Forum Global Advisory Council on Catastrophic Risks. He was elected to the Council on Foreign Relations in 2008. He is on the boards of the Skoll Foundation and the Salesforce.com Foundation and is a frequent speaker and consultant on topics ranging from social action to large-scale social change.
Recent honors include the TED Prize (2006), Time magazine's "100 Most Influential People" and "Top 20 Scientists and Thinkers" (2008), the United Nations Global Leadership Award (2008), the Peacemaker Award (2005), the International Public Health Hero Award (2004) and two honorary doctorates. In 2009, "The Final Inch," a documentary about polio eradication that Mr. Brilliant conceived and that was funded by Google.org, won an Oscar nomination and was bought and shown by HBO.
Denis Burov is director of the Research Institute for Marine Transport and head of the Department of Computer Science at Maritime State University (MSU) Named after Admiral G. I. Nevelskoi. He graduated from the Far Eastern State Maritime Academy in 2000 as a spatiality electromechanical engineer of electricity equipment and the automation of ships.
In 2004, he received a Ph.D. in optics, studying the remote sensing of ocean color from satellites. He currently organizes the development of remote-controlled flying apparatuses such as helicopters and planners for the exploration of ice conditions.
Dr. Burov has participated in the work of the Far Eastern Floating University since 2000. He has managed many sea expeditions and was the head of expeditions in 2006 and 2010. He was one of the main organizers of the Far Eastern Floating University in the Arctic in 2013 and was responsible for expedition equipping.
Dorothée Cambou is a Ph.D. candidate at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB). Her research interests lie in the fields of international law and human rights, with specific emphasis on indigenous peoples and Arctic issues.
In 2010, she graduated with a master of international and European comparative law in France at the University of Toulouse. In the summer of 2012, she studied human rights for development at Antwerp University.
Between 2011 and 2013, Ms. Cambou participated in several conferences in Austria, Finland, Iceland, Slovenia and the United States to present her research on the rights of indigenous peoples in the context of development. She has also published several articles related to this subject.
Her doctoral thesis addresses the issue of indigenous self-determination with a focus on Sámi rights. During the past several months, she has worked at the Arctic Centre in Finland to pursue her doctoral research on this topic.
Margrét Cela holds a master of arts in international relations from the University of Iceland. Currently she is a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Lapland, focusing on Iceland's security interest in the High North, and a project manager at the recently established Centre for Arctic Policy Studies (CAPS) at the University of Iceland.
Arthur Chilingarov is a Hero of the Soviet Union, a laureate of the USSR State Award and a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences.
Mr. Chilingarov was born in 1939 in Leningrad. In 1963, he graduated from the Arctic faculty of the Leningrad Marine Institute named after Admiral S.O. Makarov, specializing in oceanology. As an engineer-oceanologer, he was directed to Tiksi observatory of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute.
In 1965, Mr. Chilingarov was elected as the first secretary of Bulonsk district committee. In 1969, he was appointed as a head of the youth research station North Pole-19. In 1971, he headed the Bellinsgausen station of the 17th Soviet Antarctic expedition. In 1973, he organized the floating station North Pole-22 based on the icebreaker Vladivostok.
For five years beginning in 1974, he worked in the west sector of the Arctic as a head of the Amderminsk Administration of hydrometeorology and environment control. For developing the procedure of fast ice usage for handling operations, Mr. Chilingarov and some of his research colleges were named USSR State Award laureates.
From 1979 to 1992, he worked in the USSR State Committee of Hydrometeorology, and since 1986 has been the organization's deputy chairman and head of the Central Administrative Board on Arctic, Antarctic and the World Ocean.
In 1985, Mr. Chilingarov headed the special expedition on research vessel Mikhael Somov salvage, which was ice-blocked in the South Ocean. For his successful performance during salvation operations in extreme conditions, and for his organizational abilities and courage, he was named a Hero of the Soviet Union.
He has served as president of the Polar Explorers' Association since 1992 and as deputy chairman of the Russian Federation State Duma since 1993. Mr. Chilingarov has been awarded the Orders of Lenin, the Labour Red Banner and the Sign of Honor along with many medals, and is the author of more than 50 scientific publications.
Hillary Rodham Clinton served as the 67th secretary of state of the United States from January 21, 2009, until February 1, 2013, after nearly four decades in public service as an advocate, attorney, first lady and senator.
As first lady, Ms. Clinton advocated for health care reform and led successful bipartisan efforts to improve the adoption and foster care systems, reduce teen pregnancy, establish Early Head Start and provide health care to millions of children through the Children's Health Insurance Program. She also traveled to more than 80 countries as a representative of the United States, winning respect as a champion of human rights, democracy, civil society and opportunities for women and girls around the world.
In 2000, Ms. Clinton made history as the first first lady elected to the United States Senate. She worked across party lines to expand economic opportunity and access to quality, affordable health care, including for wounded service members, veterans and members of the National Guard and Reserves. After September 11, 2001, she advocated for rebuilding New York and addressing the health needs of first responders who risked their lives at Ground Zero.
In 2007 and 2008, Ms. Clinton made her historic campaign for president, winning 18 million votes and more primaries and delegates than any woman had before.
In her four years as secretary of state, Ms. Clinton played a central role in restoring America's standing in the world and strengthening its global leadership. Her "smart power" approach to foreign policy elevated American diplomacy and development and repositioned them for the 21st century—with new tools, technologies and partners, including the private sector and civil society around the world. As America's chief diplomat and President Barack Obama's principal foreign policy adviser, Ms. Clinton spearheaded progress on many of our greatest national security challenges, from reasserting the United States as a Pacific power to imposing crippling sanctions on Iran and North Korea to responding to the challenges and opportunities of the Arab Awakening to negotiating a ceasefire in the Middle East. She pushed the frontiers of human rights and demonstrated that giving women the opportunity to participate fully is vital to security, stability and prosperity.
Today, through the Bill, Hillary & Chelsea Clinton Foundation, Ms. Clinton continues to build on the nonprofit work she began nearly four decades ago. The Clinton Foundation works to improve global health, strengthen economies, promote health and wellness and protect the environment by creating partnerships of great purpose among businesses, governments, nongovernmental organizations and individuals to deliver sustainable solutions that empower people to live better lives.
Raychelle Daniel grew up in Tuntutuliak, Alaska, where the Kuskokwim River meets the Bering Sea in a Yup'ik community dependent upon a subsistence way of life, and where fish and marine mammals were prominent. This influenced her academic interest in studying marine mammal biology and ecology.
She obtained a bachelor of science at the University of Alaska in Juneau and a master of science in zoology at the University of British Columbia Fisheries Centre. She has worked on several major research projects on pinnipeds in Alaska, and her area of focus is mammal ecology, ecological monitoring and conservation science.
She is a senior associate for the U.S. Arctic Program of the Pew Charitable Trusts.
Charles K. Ebinger is director of the Energy Security Initiative and a senior fellow of foreign policy at the Brookings Institution. He has more than 35 years of experience specializing in international and domestic energy markets (oil, gas, coal and nuclear) and the geopolitics of energy, with a particular focus on the Middle East, South Asia, Africa and the Arctic and Antarctic.
Dr. Ebinger has served as an energy policy advisor to more than 50 governments on restructuring their state-owned energy sectors, privatization and the creation of regulatory regimes. He is an adjunct professor of electricity economics at Johns Hopkins Nitze School and is one of the Nuclear Energy Institute's "Nuclear Energy Experts."
Anders J. H. Eira works as a business advisor and reindeer herder. From 2005 to 2011, he was a director of the Sámi University College in Kautokeino, Norway.
Before that, from 2001 to 2004, Mr. Eira served as state secretary in Norway's Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development, with responsibility for regional and district policies and Sámi and minority politics. From 2000 to 2001, he was a general manager at Sparebanken Nord-Norge.
Mr. Eira holds a master of business administration with specialization in strategy and international management. He has served as chairman of several company boards.
Heather Exner-Pirot is the managing editor of Arctic Yearbook, a research fellow for the EU Arctic Forum and a member of the board of advisors for the Arctic Institute. She writes a geopolitics column for Eye on the Arctic. She is a strategist for outreach and indigenous engagement at the University of Saskatchewan.
Matthias Finger holds a Ph.D. in political science and a Ph.D. in adult education from the University of Geneva. He has been an assistant professor at Syracuse University, an associate professor at Columbia University, and a full professor of management of public enterprises at the Swiss Federal Institute of Public Administration.
Since 2002, he has held the Swiss Post Chair of Management of Network Industries at the École Polytechnique Fédérale in Lausanne, Switzerland. Since 2010, he has also directed the Florence School of Regulation's Transport Area at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy.
Professor Finger is the co-editor-in-chief of the Journal Competition and Regulation in Network Industries. He is also a member of the Swiss electricity regulatory authority (ElCom) and vice president of the Swiss railways regulatory authority (SKE).
Jenifer Austin Foulkes is the manager of the Google Ocean Program which includes the best consumer map of the ocean available in Google Earth and Google Maps and an Ocean Education Showcase with narrated stories by numerous contributors like Sylvia Earle's Mission Blue Foundation, the Cousteau Society, MBARI and NOAA. She recently partnered with Catlin Seaview Survey to launch underwater Streetview in Google Maps.
The Google Ocean Program was awarded the Wildaid Leadership Award on May 11, 2012, at Wildaid's Annual Gala; the 2012 Blue Frontier Peter Benchley Excellence in Exploration award on June 1 at the California Academy of Sciences, alongside President Tong of Kiribati and U.S. Senator Sheldon Whitehouse; the 2009 Aquarium of the Pacific at Long Beach's Ocean Conservation Award; and the 2009 Heal the Bay "Walk the Talk" Award.
In 2007, she cofounded the Google Earth Outreach Program which supports nonprofit groups using Google's geotools to change the world.
Ms. Foulkes holds an undergraduate degree in biology and a master's degree from Stanford University in neuroscience and has done marine research at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Florida State University and the University of Washington's Friday Harbor Labs.
In addition to serving on the Mission Blue Foundation board, she also is a member of the external advisory boards of the Blue Ocean Film Festival and the Bodega Marine Lab at the University of California, Davis.
Erik Franckx is a full-time professor of law at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) and is the director of its Department of International and European Law. He has also taught at Vesalius College VUB, Université Libre de Bruxelles, the Brussels School of International Studies (University of Kent at Canterbury) and the Université Paris-Sorbonne Abu Dhabi.
Mr. Franckx's research focuses on international law in general and the Law of the Sea in particular. He has been appointed by Belgium as a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, The Hague, The Netherlands. He has also been appointed by Belgium as an expert in marine scientific research for use in special arbitration under the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
Mr. Franckx represents Belgium in the Advisory Body of Experts on the Law of the Sea within the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). He has served as a consultant to governments and international, supra-national and non-governmental organizations.
He has written numerous book chapters and articles in journals such as the International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, the International Journal of Estuarine and Coastal Law, the Ocean Development and International Law Journal, the Belgian Review of International Law, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, the Tulane Journal of International and Comparative Law, the Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law, the California Western International Law Journal, the German Yearbook of International Law, the Finnish Yearbook of International Law, the South African Yearbook of International Law and China Oceans Law Review.
Ásbjörn Gíslason, Samskip CEO, is responsible for Samskip operations in Iceland and the North Atlantic.
In 1996, after finishing his bachelor of science in business administration from the University of Iceland, Mr. Gíslason joined Samskip in Reykjavík, Iceland, where his career quickly accelerated. Five years later, in 2001, Mr. Gíslason took over as CEO of foreign operations in Rotterdam, Netherlands, where he led the company through a period of growth, including acquisitions of Geest, Seawheel and cold stores from Kloosterboer. In 2005, Mr. Gíslason returned to Iceland to take his current position as CEO of Samskip operations in Iceland and the North Atlantic, having made Samskip one of the larger transport companies in Europe.
Since then, he has led the company, as a member of the management team and a part-owner, through challenging times following the economic crisis, resulting in a company focusing on cost efficiency, sustainability and environmentally friendly transport.
Mr. Gíslason serves on the boards of the Iceland Chamber of Commerce, the Icelandic Arctic Chamber of Commerce and a number of companies related to Samskip.
Today, Samskip operates 46 offices in 24 countries, employing 1,300 people on five continents, including 500 in Iceland.
Former Vice President Al Gore is co-founder and chairman of Generation Investment Management. He is a senior partner at Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and a member of Apple Inc.'s board of directors. Mr. Gore spends the majority of his time as chairman of the Climate Reality Project, a nonprofit devoted to solving the climate crisis.
Mr. Gore was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1976, 1978, 1980 and 1982 and the U.S. Senate in 1984 and 1990. He was inaugurated as the 45th vice president of the United States on January 20, 1993, and served eight years.
He is the author of the bestsellers "Earth in the Balance," "An Inconvenient Truth," "The Assault on Reason," "Our Choice: A Plan to Solve the Climate Crisis," and most recently "The Future: Six Drivers of Global Change." He is the subject of an Oscar-winning documentary and is the co-recipient, with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, of the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize for "informing the world of the dangers posed by climate change."
One of the world's leading communication strategists and public speaking trainers, Richard Greene has been called "The Master of Charisma" by the Sunday Times of London. He is the author of "Words That Shook the World: 100 Years of Unforgettable Speeches and Events," used in high schools and universities around the world.
An attorney by trade from the University of Southern California Law School, Mr. Greene left the practice of law to share his communication breakthroughs with presidents, prime ministers, cabinet ministers, senators, members of the U.S. Congress, first ladies, political candidates, CEOs and CFOs of Fortune 500 companies, attorneys, judges, Hollywood celebrities and marketing professionals among others in over 40 countries on six continents.
The work includes branding and message development, media training, speech writing and speech coaching. It also extends to helping clients overcome the fear of public speaking, a service he provided to Princess Diana and continues to provide to major politicians, business leaders and professional speakers today.
Mr. Greene's uncanny ability to "read" body language and analyze all aspects of human communication propelled him to the forefront of television coverage of key news events. He has made well over 500 personal appearances on over 30 national and international programs, including CNN, NBC, ABC News, "Nightline," "Good Morning America," the BBC and Sky Channel.
Mr. Greene has also been on the other side of the microphone as a talk show host interviewing senators, members of Congress and other major news personalities and providing commentary for ABC Radio Networks and other outlets.
Alain A. Grenier is a professor of nature‐based tourism and sustainable development in the Department of Urban and Tourism Studies at the Université du Québec à Montréal. A doctoral graduate in sociology from the University of Lapland, Dr. Grenier's research began with an interest in the contradictive relations between people and the natural environment, in the context of tourism management and destination planning in the Arctic and Antarctic regions.
While Dr. Grenier's work continues to focus on Northern tourism management issues, his research now also includes the sociological conceptualization of the many tourism phenomena that make up the industry, helping to provide a better understanding of society through its leisure and tourism practices.
A former head of the master's degree program in tourism at the Université du Québec à Montréal, Dr. Grenier is also the editor-in-chief of the French-language academic journal of tourism, Téoros, since 2008.
Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson is the fifth president of the Republic of Iceland. On June 30, 2012, he was re-elected to a record fifth term.
President Grímsson earned a bachelor of arts in economics and political science at the University of Manchester in England in 1965 and a Ph.D. in political science five years later. He subsequently became the first professor of political science at the University of Iceland. He took a seat in Althingi, Iceland’s legislative assembly, in 1978 and served as the country’s minister of finance from 1988 to 1991.
During his presidency, he has emphasized sustainable management of natural resources to control climate change, brought the lessons of Iceland’s clean energy achievements to many parts of the world, and strongly advocating the use of geothermal energy as a renewable, economically viable and reliable resource.
President Grímsson has actively supported training and research on desertification control, soil use and carbon sequestration, creating joint projects by scientists from different countries. He was among the initiators of a Global Roundtable on Climate Change that brought together representatives of nearly 100 European and American corporations, as well as experts, scientists and opinion leaders.
He has actively supported the World Future Energy Summit in Abu Dhabi and was the first foreign head of state to speak at the conference when it was launched in 2008. He has also been a member of the jury of the Zayed Future Energy Prize since it was founded and has promoted cooperation between Iceland and the renewable energy company Masdar in the field of geothermal energy.
In addition to his leadership role in environmental issues, President Grímsson has also been a strong advocate for peace and conflict resolution. He has received many international awards, including the Indira Gandhi Peace Prize, which he accepted on behalf of Parliamentarians for Global Action (PGA), and the 2007 Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding.
Arjun Gupta is a contrarian investor with extraordinary persistence and belief. He is the founder of TeleSoft Partners, a special situations venture capital firm focused on high-tech and energy value chain companies. He has over 20 years of experience working with technology companies in venture capital, consulting and design engineering roles.
At TeleSoft, Mr. Gupta manages capital commitments of over $625 million and has established corporate partnerships with Alltel, Bechtel, Deutsche Telekom, Nexant, Salesforce.com and Symphony. In 2001, Mr. Gupta also started a foundation to support community projects in education, medical research and the arts. The foundation has helped provide partial funding for about 90 projects to date.
He is a member of the Stanford Business School management board, a trustee of the Aspen Institute, a trustee of the Rocky Mountain Institute, an officer of the Young Presidents Organization's Colorado chapter, a trustee of the Natural Resources Defense Council, and a member of the board of governors and president of the Western Regional Association of the National Association of the Small Business Investor Alliance (SBIA).
In addition to building companies, Mr. Gupta is a passionate outdoorsman. Over the last 30 years, his key expeditions include the North Pole to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Peary reaching the pole, a scuba expedition with National Geographic to chart the Millennium Atoll in the South Pacific, six Himalayan expeditions to peaks over 20,000 feet, the Arctic Expedition for Climate Change, Conservation and Human Well-Being in Africa, polar bear and grizzly tracking safaris in Alaska, Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, and Cotopaxi and Chimborazo in Ecuador. He also served as a liaison officer with international expeditions for the Indian Mountaineering Federation.
Mr. Gupta received his master of business administration from Stanford University, a master of science and a bachelor of science in computer science (Phi Beta Kappa) from WSU, and a bachelor of arts (honors) in economics from St. Stephen's College. He is a Henry Crown Fellow at the Aspen Institute.
Heiðar Már Guðjónsson is chairman of the board of Eykon Energy, an Icelandic company involved in oil exploration and production, with a geographical focus in the North Atlantic and Arctic.
Mr. Guðjónsson is also an economist and the managing director of Ursus, an investment company in Zurich. He is a former managing partner of Novator, a private investment firm managing €7 billion in public and private equity, based in London.
Previously, Mr. Guðjónsson managed a trading account at Íslandsbanki London, served as fund manager of a global macro hedge fund in New York, and was head of institutional sales and trading at Íslandsbanki Reykjavik. Mr. Guðjónsson was active in developing the markets in Iceland after capital controls were lifted in the mid-1990s.
Mr. Guðjónsson is the chairman of RSE, a pro-market think tank in Iceland, sponsored by the employers' federation and private enterprise.
Mark Halle's career began in the field of international negotiations, serving in the diplomatic secretariat of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. In that capacity, he was involved in the negotiations for the Barcelona Convention on the Mediterranean Environment, one of the first regional environmental conventions ever adopted.
He then spent five years with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), starting in the policy planning unit and ending up working on the global State of the Environment report published 10 years after UNEP's establishment. From UNEP, he worked with the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in writing the World Conservation Strategy, a document which fundamentally changed the way in which conservation of nature was approached, namely by abandoning the earlier notion that conservation and development were necessarily in opposition to one another and embracing the notion that they are essential components of sustainable development.
Mr. Halle moved to IUCN in 1984 to establish the Conservation for Development Centre, IUCN's first move to involvement with the developing countries. For seven years, he worked in, and directed, this center, establishing the foundation for what is now an extensive worldwide IUCN presence. Mr. Halle then spent a further three years setting up IUCN's fundraising system, and a final four years establishing its Global Policy and Partnerships program.
Since his departure from IUCN, he has worked for the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), both as its European representative and as its global director for trade and investment. In this capacity he supervises a team of more than 30 professionals based in Europe and around the world.
Mr. Halle lectures, writes and publishes frequently on issues relating to sustainable development and multilateral trade policy. He is founder and former chairman of the board of the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development.
Aleqa Hammond has long worked to realize the desire for an independent Greenland, and is driven by an internal commitment for changing circumstances across a broad political spectrum. She believes it is important to bridge the gap further and ensure basic welfare for all citizens in Greenland.
Premier Hammond was born in 1965 in Narsaq (South Greenland) and raised in Uummannaq (North Greenland). As a seven-year-old, she lost her father, who was hunting. Her mother stood alone as a 27-year-old with three young children. Premier Hammond's sense of family and community importance is also the strong unity which was necessary to ensure that they could succeed despite the challenges.
She studied at Arctic College in Nunavut and ran for Parliament in 2005, where she was elected with the fifth-highest number of personal votes. She has been minister of Family and Justice and subsequently of Foreign Affairs and Finance. She has experiences of being the only female minister in the Greenlandic government. She was made chairman of the Siumut Party in 2009, after the election defeat that prompted Hans Enoksen's resignation.
Very internationally oriented, Premier Hammond has made it her priority to travel the world since age 15. By the time she was 25, she had already visited 50 different locations during her travels, learning five languages (Greenlandic, English, Danish, Inuktitut and German). In addition to traveling abroad, she has also made it a priority to travel around in her own country, and has been to most places in Greenland already.
Now the first female Greenlandic prime minister, she aims to apply those values toward her commitment for a better nation.
Rúni M. Hansen is a Faroese national with extensive experience in the international oil and gas industry. For many years, he was the country manager for Statoil in charge of operations in the Faroe Islands and Greenland, including operated drilling campaigns. He has also been manager of Commercial and Negotiation for Europe and North Africa at Statoil.
Recently, Mr. Hansen was appointed head of Statoil's newly established Arctic Unit, tasked with leading work on technology, partnerships, strategy and communications.
Senator Tom Harkin has represented Iowa in the United States Congress for nearly 40 years. First winning election to the U.S. House in 1974, he represented Iowa's Fifth Congressional District for 10 years, and in 1984 challenged an incumbent senator and won. Iowans returned him to the Senate in 1990, 1996, 2002 and 2008.
Since arriving in Congress, Senator Harkin has championed issues that touch the lives of everyday Americans: health care, education and equal rights. He has worked to transform America into a "wellness society" focused on disease prevention and improving public health. He is a staunch defender of America's working families, and has led the fight to improve education and modernize school infrastructure. He has worked to reduce class size, give students better computer and Internet access, expand school counseling and nutrition programs and improve teacher training.
Senator Harkin is uniquely positioned as chairman of the Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP) Committee and the Appropriations Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education and Related Agencies. He has been a member of the Senate Agriculture Committee since his first term in Congress and is also a member of the Senate Small Business Committee.
Senator Harkin was born in Cumming, Iowa, the son of an Iowa coal miner and a Slovenian immigrant, and still lives in the house in Cumming where he was born. He attended Dowling High School in Des Moines, Iowa State University on a Navy ROTC scholarship, and earned his law degree from Catholic University. He and his wife, Ruth, have two grown daughters, Amy and Jenny, and three grandchildren.
Bosse Hedberg serves as ambassador of Sweden to Iceland. Previously he was Sweden's ambassador to Bosnia. Before that, he served at the Swedish embassy in Tunis, the Permanent Representation of Sweden to the Council of Europe in Strasbourg, and in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs's Department for International Law, Human Rights and Treaty Law.
Tomas H. Heidar has been the legal adviser of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Iceland since 1996. As legal adviser of a country so overwhelmingly dependent on the oceans, his professional life has centered on the Law of the Sea. He has led Iceland's negotiations with neighboring countries on fisheries and maritime delimitation. He is the chairman of the National Commission on Continental Shelf Limits, has been in charge of preparing Iceland's submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS), and is head of the Delegation of Iceland at meetings with the CLCS.
Mr. Heidar has represented Iceland at numerous meetings and negotiations in the field of international law, in particular on ocean affairs and the Law of the Sea, both at regional and global levels. This includes meetings and negotiations under the auspices of the United Nations.
Mr. Heidar is also an active supporter of capacity building through the dissemination of knowledge of the Law of the Sea. For more than a decade, he has been the director of the Law of the Sea Institute of Iceland and co-director and lecturer of the Rhodes Academy of Oceans Law and Policy, which holds a prominent course in this field each year in Rhodes, Greece. The Law of the Sea Institute of Iceland grants a number of scholarships to participants from developing countries each year.
Mr. Heidar is a lecturer on the Law of the Sea at the Faculty of Law of the University of Iceland and at several other academic institutions, including the University of Virginia School of Law. He has organized a number of national and international conferences on the Law of the Sea. He has also participated as a panelist in numerous international conferences in this field all over the world. His publications include numerous books and articles on the Law of the Sea.
Mr. Heidar is a conciliator and arbitrator under Annexes V and VII of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, and is a member of Iceland's National Group for the purpose of nominating candidates for election to international courts and tribunals.
Lassi Heininen is a professor of Arctic politics and a docent of international relations in the Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Lapland and a docent of Northern geopolitics at the University of Oulu in Finland. He is also a visiting professor at the University of Akureyri in Iceland, an adjunct faculty member at Trent University in Canada, and director of the International Summer School in Karelia at Petrozavodsk State University in Russia.
Professor Heininen teaches and lectures regularly abroad and supervises Ph.D. students from Finland and other Arctic countries. His research fields include international relations, geopolitics, security studies, environmental politics, Russian studies, Northern and Arctic studies and political history.
He is the author of more than 200 scientific publications and the editor of the "Arctic Yearbook." His recent publications include "Northern Geopolitics: Actors, Interests and Processes in the Circumpolar Arctic," which will appear in "Polar Geopolitics: Knowledges, Resources and Legal Regimes"; "'Politicization' of the Environment: Environmental Politics and Security in the Circumpolar North," which appeared in "The Fast-Changing Arctic: Rethinking Arctic Security for a Warmer World" (2013); "Arctic Strategies and Policies—Inventory and Comparative Study" (2011); and "Globalization and the Circumpolar North" (with Chris Southcott, 2010).
Professor Heininen is actively involved in speaking at international scientific conferences and workshops as well at gatherings implementing the interplay between science and politics. He is the organizer of the annual Calotte Academy, the chairman of Northern Research Forum's steering committee and the leader of the Thematic Network on Geopolitics and Security.
Hafsteinn Helgason was born in 1960. He graduated with a master of science in civil engineering from TU Berlin (the Berlin Institute of Technology) in Germany in 1986.
Mr. Helgason started his career working for the German engineering company Geoplan in Berlin. After his return to Iceland in 1989, he started his own consulting company and worked as a lecturer at the University of Iceland until 1997.
Mr. Helgason joined EFLA Consulting Engineers as director of the environmental department in 1996. In 2003, he became director of the business development department at EFLA.
In his third term in the Alaska House of Representatives, Bob Herron currently serves as co-chair of the Alaska Arctic Policy Commission. He also served on the Alaska Northern Waters Task Force, which delivered its final report in January 2012. He has been active in the Pacific Northwest Economic Region's (PNWER) Arctic Caucus since 2010 and is its current co-chair.
In 2011, Representative Herron passed legislation formalizing the Alaska Legislature's recognition of the Arctic Caucus and passed a resolution urging the U.S. Senate to ratify the Law of the Sea treaty. In the spring of 2012, Representative Herron sponsored House Joint Resolution 34, asking Congress to fund icebreakers and a forward U.S. Coast Guard Arctic base. Last March, House Bill 165 was presented by Representative Herron to the legislature for consideration to create the Alaska Arctic Port and Development Authority as a public corporation of the state, with the power to receive and administer funds to plan, develop, construct, own, improve and operate ports.
Representative Herron's current legislative district defines the southern Bering Sea region including Bethel and surrounding villages, Nunivak Island, the Pribilof Islands, the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands.
He and his wife, Margaret, are enjoying their five grandchildren, Keith, Kendall, Briella, Emilyn and Honey Kay, while living in western Alaska on the Kuskokwim River.
Anthony Hodge joined the International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM) as president in October 2008. He is responsible for providing leadership for ICMM and maintaining the integrity, efficiency and effectiveness of ICMM activities. Dr. Hodge reports to the ICMM Council made up of the 22 member company CEOs.
In his career spanning over 30 years, Dr. Hodge has worked as a consulting engineer for the private sector, governments and civil society organizations. He has worked on a variety of assignments related to mining, aboriginal relations, nuclear waste management, water resources, energy policy and the distribution of benefits from resource developments. Throughout, he has focused on practical application of sustainability ideas, something he has written about and presented on extensively.
During 2001 and 2002, Dr. Hodge led the North American component of a global multi-stakeholder research initiative called the Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development project (MMSD), which examined the role of mining in a sustainable future. The initiative recognized the industry's potential contributions to society, identified core challenges and established an agenda for implementing change which would become the foundation of ICMM's mandate.
In addition, Dr. Hodge has served as president of Friends of the Earth Canada from 1989 to 1992, served on the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE) in Canada from 1992 to 1996, and from 2002 to 2004 served as senior advisor to the president of Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization.
Dr. Hodge received his bachelor of science and master of science in geological engineering from the University of British Columbia. He was awarded his Ph.D. in 1995 from McGill University as a result of work that focused on reporting on progress toward sustainability, and in 2007 was appointed Kinross Professor of Mining and Sustainability at Queen's University in Canada.
Paul Holthus is the founding president and CEO of the World Ocean Council (WOC), the international business leadership alliance on the responsible use of marine and coastal areas and resources, including for the Arctic.
The WOC brings together oil and gas, shipping, fisheries, aquaculture, tourism, mining, offshore renewables and other industries, including the finance, insurance and legal sectors, to create business community leadership and collaboration in addressing sustainable development challenges.
Mr. Holthus initiated the WOC Arctic Business Leadership Council, which first met in 2012. Through Mr. Holthus's efforts, this multi-industry Arctic business group held the first-ever "Business Dialogue" with the Arctic Council's Sustainable Development Working Group.
He has held senior positions with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and international environmental organizations, including deputy director for the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Global Marine Programme.
Since 1998, Mr. Holthus has worked primarily with the private sector to develop practical solutions for the sustainable use of the marine environment. He has worked in over 30 countries with companies, communities, industry associations, United Nations agencies, international non-governmental organizations and foundations.
Gunhild Hoogensen Gjørv is an associate professor in political science at the University of Tromsø (The Arctic University of Norway), specializing in security theory and politics, civil-military interaction and international relations theory.
Dr. Hoogensen Gjørv is a member of the University of the Arctic Thematic Network on Geopolitics and Security, as well as co-lead of the Thematic Network on Arctic Extractive Industries, which currently runs a Ph.D. program in the area of extractive industries with cooperating Arctic universities.
She has been the international principle investigator and lead in the International Polar Year project GAPS (The Impacts of Oil and Gas Activities on Peoples of the Arctic Using a Multiple Securities Perspective), which examines multiple understandings of security in the Arctic region, particularly in Norway, Canada and Russia, cooperating with institutions such as the Norwegian Polar Institute, the Russian Academy of Sciences (Ural Division), York University and the University of Cambridge.
Dr. Hoogensen Gjørv's most recently published work in this area is "Environmental and Human Security in the Arctic" (Routledge), for which she was a co-editor and contributor, and which will be available in November 2013.
She has been focused increasingly on the relationships between health and economic and environmental security; the links between the concepts of security and governance in the Arctic; and civil-military interaction in the Arctic and international operations.
Robert Howe was born in 1962. He graduated with a master of science in civil engineering from TU Braunschweig (the Brunswick Institute of Technology) in Germany in 1992.
Mr. Howe started his career working for the German building and construction company Philip Holzmann AG in Hannover, Germany, where he worked for approximately 10 years. In 2002, he changed employment to the German building and construction company Ed. Züblin AG in Bremen and Hamburg, Germany.
Mr. Howe joined Bremenports GmbH, the publicly owned ports management company of the state of Bremen, as managing director in 2012.
Edward Itta served as mayor of the North Slope Borough of Alaska from 2005 to 2011. He currently serves as senior advisor to Pt Capital and chairman of the board of Pt Public Policy.
Over the past two decades, he has held a variety of leadership positions for the regional government, including chief administrative officer, public works director, planning director and director of capital improvement program management.
He has held management and liaison positions for subsidiaries of the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation (ASRC), including Arctic Slope World Services and the Arctic Slope Consulting Group, where he helped coordinate the North Slope village water and sewer construction program. He was president of LCMF, a design and engineering subsidiary of UIC, the village corporation in Barrow, Alaska. He served on the boards of directors of UIC and Eskimo's Inc., a subsidiary of ASRC.
Mr. Itta is very active in community affairs and public policy. He is a past president of the Inuit Circumpolar Council Alaska. He is a past president and current member of the Barrow Whaling Captains Association and a past commissioner and vice chairman of the Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission, of which he is also a current member. Mr. Itta served as president of the North Slope Borough school board and was vice chairman of the federal government's subsistence advisory council for northern Alaska.
Mr. Itta trained as an electronics technician at the Griswold Institute in Cleveland and in the U.S. Navy.
Julia Jabour has an undergraduate degree in politics, philosophy and sociology, a post-graduate honors degree in Antarctic and Southern Ocean studies, and a Ph.D. in polar environmental law. She is the leader of the Ocean and Antarctic Governance Research Program for the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies and has been writing and lecturing on polar law and policy for nearly 20 years.
Dr. Jabour has taught in Malaysia, Iceland and New Zealand, as well as Australia. She has visited Antarctica six times and has attended Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings as an advisor to the Australian delegation.
Her current research includes an examination of the "deep rules" embedded in the Antarctic Treaty System. Most of her teaching and research is interdisciplinary, involving examining current scientific developments, determining their utility to the policy and law-making processes and translating that information into user-friendly knowledge for uptake by non-specialist audiences.
Beinta í Jákupsstovu is an associate professor in political science at Molde University College in Norway. She is also an adjoined professor at the University of the Faroe Islands. Most of her research has involved analyzing Faroese policy performance.
Dr. Jákupsstovu's selected publications include "The Faroe Islands' Security Policy in a Process of Devolution" (co-written with Regin Berg) in Politics and Administration; "Female Deficit Among Faroese Politicians" in the Journal of Social Science Research; "Local Politics" (Faroe University Press); and "Knowledge and Power: Faroese Health Policy Through 150 Years" (Faroe University Press).
T. Jasudasen is Singapore's ambassador to Iceland. He presented his credentials to President Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson of Iceland on May 6, 2013, and is Singapore's first representative to Iceland. He resides in London.
Mr. Jasudasen has had a distinguished career in the Singapore Foreign Service since 1977. He assumed the post as Singapore's high commissioner to the United Kingdom and ambassador to the Republic of Ireland in August 2011, and was Singapore's high commissioner to Malaysia from June 2006 to July 2011, Singapore's ambassador to Myanmar from 2004 to 2006 and Singapore's ambassador to France from 1997 to 2004.
He has also served overseas tours at the Singapore Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York and the Singapore embassy in Manila. At the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, he was director of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Directorate and director of the Policy, Planning and Analysis Directorate IV, covering South Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Latin America.
Mr. Jasudasen received an honors degree in law from the University of Singapore in 1977 and graduated from the École Nationale d'Administration in Paris in 1984.
The Singapore government awarded Mr. Jasudasen the Public Administration Medal (Silver) in 1990, the Long Service Medal in 2000 and the Public Administration Medal (Gold) in 2011. He has also been decorated twice by the French government, with the Palmes Académiques in 2002 and the Légion d'Honneur in 2004. The Sultan of Pahang (Malaysia) conferred on him the Darjah Sultan Ahmad Shah of Pahang (DSAP), which carries the title of Dato, in October 2010.
Mr. Jasudasen and his wife, Patricia, have a son and twin daughters.
Kaj Leo Holm Johannesen was elected prime minister of the Faroe Islands on September 26, 2008. In addition to leading the cabinet of government ministers, the prime minister's responsibilities include constitutional matters and foreign affairs.
Prime Minister Johannesen graduated as shipmaster from Føroya Sjómansskúli (Center of Maritime Studies) in 1986, and the following year he sailed as an officer with Maersk Line.
In 1989, he was employed by Faroe Seafood, and from 1995 to 1997 he was sales manager at Kósin Seafood. From 1997 to 2008, he was a salesman in the fish exports company Farex, co-owned by him.
Prime Minister Johannesen has been active in sports for many years. He played for the football club HB Tórshavn for almost two decades as a goalkeeper and has represented the Faroese national team.
He became a member of the Faroese Unionist Party (Sambandsflokkurin) in 1988. He had a supplementary seat in the Faroese national parliament (Løgtingið) for a period in 1996. He was a member of the Tórshavn city council from 1996 to 2000 and was elected to the parliament for the first time in 2002 and has been re-elected in subsequent elections.
Since 2004, Prime Minister Johannesen has been the leader of the Unionist Party. From 2003 to 2004, he was deputy chairman of the government committee of the Faroese parliament and a member of the trade and industry committee. From 2004 to 2008, he was chairman of the foreign affairs committee and a member of the finance committee.
Rachael Lorna Johnstone is a professor of law at the University of Akureyri in Iceland. She specializes in public international law, in particular polar law, state responsibility, human rights law and environmental law.
Dr. Johnstone earned her undergraduate honors degree in law from the University of Glasgow (1999), her masters in law from the European Academy of Legal Theory in Brussels (2000) and her doctorate in law from the University of Toronto (2004).
In October 2013, she will defend her master's thesis in polar law, titled "Risk and Responsibility: Hydrocarbon Extraction in the Arctic Ocean Under International Law," at the University of Akureyri.
Ingibjörg Jónsdóttir was born in Reykjavík, Iceland, in 1969. She studied geography at the University of Iceland and polar studies at the Scott Polar Research Institute at the University of Cambridge. She continued her studies there on sea-ice variability in the Greenland Sea and the consequences for people's lives in the past and present.
Dr. Jónsdóttir worked in the sea-ice department of the Icelandic Meteorological Office on real-time sea-ice monitoring, and at the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research at the University of Colorado on historical sea-ice research. She has collected historical data in archives in Denmark, Norway, the United Kingdom, the United States and Iceland.
Her fieldwork includes three sea-ice expeditions to the Greenland Sea during the European CONVECTION project (coordinated by Professor Peter Wadhams), the CHINARE 5 expedition on Xue Long over the Arctic Ocean in 2012, and a number of ice reconnaissance flights with the Icelandic Coast Guard.
Since 1999, Dr. Jónsdóttir has been an associate professor at the University of Iceland, working on sea-ice studies, remote sensing, geographical information systems and historical geography. She is currently involved with the Nordic CRAICC project (coordinated by Professor Markku Kulmala) and has been active in the International Ice Charting Working Group (IICWG).
Reggie Joule was born in Nome, Alaska, in 1952 and was adopted by his grandparents Tony and May Joule. His father was an Inupiaq teacher from the village of Point Hope, Alaska, and his mother was a nurse as well as a cook for the school. Since 1959, Kotzebue, Alaska, has been his home. He graduated from Cooper Valley High School (a Catholic boarding school) near Glennallen, Alaska, and briefly attended the University of Alaska Fairbanks.
Mayor Joule has been involved in a variety of public service organizations over the years. He and his wife, Linda, have five children and seven grandchildren.
Mayor Joule served as a state representative in the Alaska Legislature from 1996 to October 2012, representing much of the Alaskan Arctic. As a state representative, he served as the Bush Caucus chairman and as a member of the House Finance Committee. He also served as chair of the Alaska Northern Waters Task Force, which examined the changing Arctic. He currently serves as a commissioner on the Arctic Policy Commission for the State of Alaska. In October 2012, he was elected mayor of Alaska's Northwest Arctic Borough.
Björn Karlsson was born in Reykjavík, Iceland, on April 10, 1959. He graduated with a bachelor of science (with honors) in civil engineering from Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1986; acquired his licentiate from the Department of Fire Safety Engineering at Lund University in Sweden in 1989; and received a Ph.D. from the same department in 1992.
Dr. Karlsson worked as an associate professor at the department from 1993 to 2001, was a visiting professor at the University of Maryland in 1996, and became fire marshal and director-general of the state-run Iceland Fire Authority in Reykjavík in 2001 and director-general of the Iceland Construction Authority in 2011. He is an associate professor in the Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Iceland.
Jong-Deog Kim is a research fellow at the Korea Maritime Institute, which is a government-affiliated organization in the Republic of Korea. He served as a division director of planning and coordination, is the Arctic policy research program manager, and participated in the recent North Pacific Arctic Conference.
Mr. Kim led and participated in several national projects on coastal and ocean policy and international marine environmental relations in his research career. He has a Ph.D. in oceanic architecture and engineering from Nihon University and a master of arts and a bachelor of arts from Seoul National University.
Kuupik Kleist served as the premier of Greenland from 2009 to 2013 and is currently a member of the Parliament of Greenland. He also serves as president of the Inuit Ataqatigiit (IA) political party, a post he has held since 1997.
Mr. Kleist was born in 1958. He was previously a member of the Danish Parliament in two election periods between 2001 and 2007.
He possesses extensive knowledge in both Greenlandic and international relations and has played a prominent role as a champion of the rights of indigenous peoples and their representation in the United Nations.
Mr. Kleist is a Knight of Dannebrog and a bearer of the Greenland Order of Merit in Gold.
Timo Koivurova is a research professor and the director of the Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law at the Arctic Centre of the University of Lapland. He has specialized in various aspects of international law, particularly how they apply in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. In 2002, Professor Koivurova's doctoral dissertation, "Environmental Impact Assessment in the Arctic: A Study of International Legal Norms," was published by Ashgate.
Increasingly, Professor Koivurova's research work addresses the interplay between different levels of environmental law, the legal status of indigenous peoples, the Law of the Sea in the Arctic waters, integrated maritime policy in the European Union, the role of law in mitigating and adapting to climate change, the function and role of the Arctic Council in view of its future challenges and the possibilities for an Arctic treaty.
Professor Koivurova has led many international research projects. He is a member of the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Commission on Environmental Law (CEL) and has been invited by the Norwegian Research Council to serve as a member in the steering committees for Geopolitikk-Nord, which examines evolving Arctic policy from the Norwegian perspective, and NORRUSS, which aims to study the evolving Northern policy of the Russian Federation.
He serves as editor-in-chief (with Gudmundur Alfredsson) of the Yearbook of Polar Law and as an editor of the Nordic Journal of International Law, the Nordic Journal of Environmental Law and the Arctic Review of Law and Politics.
Professor Koivurova was elected as a co-chair of the international environmental law interest group the American Society of International Law. He was also invited to serve as an expert member of the Advisory Board on Human Rights, which is an independent advisory body on human rights issues nominated by the Finnish government, and as a member of the human rights delegation overseeing the newly established Human Rights Centre.
Steven Lamy is vice dean for academic programs in the University of Southern California's Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences, and is a professor in USC's School of International Relations. As vice dean, he oversees all undergraduate and graduate programs in the college.
He earned his Ph.D. in international relations from the Graduate School of International Studies at the University of Denver. His areas of expertise include international relations theory, foreign policy analysis, the foreign policies of the U.S. European states Australia, New Zealand and Canada, and teaching and curriculum development in international relations.
Dr. Lamy has published more than 45 articles and book chapters in these areas. Oxford University Press published his most recent book, "Introduction to Global Politics," in August 2010. A second edition was published in 2012. His current work on global governance focuses on both environmental issues and human security.
Ilja Leo Lang has a master's degree in social science from the University of Copenhagen. In 2007 he wrote his master's thesis about Greenland, which has also been published as a book. During the last six years, he has worked with expedition cruise operations in Greenland for different companies. He has lived in a number of different places in Greenland and, among other things, has been working as a lecturer at the University of Greenland in Nuuk.
Since 2012, Mr. Lang has served as a project manager for the Association of Arctic Expedition Cruise Operators (AECO), a member organization for 31 operators of expedition cruise vessels and related activities. AECO is committed to respectable, environmentally friendly and safe expedition cruise tourism in the Arctic.
Yunpeng Li was appointed as a director of the board and the president of China Ocean Shipping (Group) Company (COSCO) in July 2013.
Mr. Li had been a fourth engineer, third engineer and second engineer on COSCO's vessels, and he used to serve in COSCO Tianjin as the deputy manager and general manager of the human resources department, and general manager of the administration department and party secretary office.
Since joining COSCO, Mr. Li has taken various posts, including deputy general manager of the executive division, deputy secretary of the party disciplinary inspection office, general manager of the supervisory division, director of the organization division, general manager of the human resources division, assistant to the president, party committee member, director of the party disciplinary inspection office and executive vice president of COSCO Group.
With over 30 years of expertise in the shipping industry, Mr. Li has rich experience in corporate management, internal control and human resources development. He received his master's degree in ship and naval architectural design from Tianjin University. He is a senior engineer.
Sven-Olof Lindblad, founder of Lindblad Expeditions, born in Switzerland, traveled extensively with his father, renowned adventure-travel pioneer Lars-Eric Lindblad, who led the first non-scientific groups of travelers to Antarctica (1966). In 1979, he launched Special Expeditions, the adventure travel company that became Lindblad Expeditions. In 2004, Mr. Lindblad formed a strategic alliance with National Geographic that combines the strengths of two pioneers in global exploration, with the goal of inspiring people to explore and care about the planet.
Mr. Lindblad's personal experiences led to a commitment to environmentally responsible travel, which has resulted in numerous travel and environmental awards, including the 2009 Climate Champion Award from Clean Air-Cool Planet, the 2008 National Wildlife Federation's Conservation Award for Corporate Achievement and the 2007 Global Tourism Business Award from the World Travel and Tourism Council. The company has also received the Condé Nast Traveler 2002 Ecotourism Award. The United Nations Environment Programme named him to their Global 500 roll of honor.
Mr. Lindblad is a member of the General Assembly of the Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands. In May 2006, he received international recognition for his innovative and successful model of tourism, receiving the Commandeur de Notre Ordre de Merite Civil et Militaire d'Adolphe de Nassau from Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg at the Grand-Ducal Place. He also had a newly discovered endemic species of moth in the Galapagos Islands, Undulambia lindbladi, named in honor of his conservation work. Additionally, he serves on the board of Blue Ocean Institute and the National Geographic Society's international council of advisors, and he is a founding Ocean Elder of the nonprofit organization Ocean Elders, which brings together global leaders to pursue the protection of the ocean's habitat and wildlife.
Karin Lochte has been director of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in the Helmholtz Association located in Bremerhaven, Germany, since November 2007. Using her position to promote the large scientific tasks related to polar sciences, she has been acting as delegate of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research since 2008 and as vice president since 2012.
Dr. Lochte has served on a variety of national and international committees. She was a member of the German Wissenschaftsrat from 2004 to 2010 and served as its chair from 2006 to 2008. From 2004 to 2011, she chaired the Senatskommission für Ozeanographie. Since 2010, she has chaired the Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung and the Wissenschaftliche Kommission Niedersachsen.
Prior to her directorship at the Alfred Wegener Institute, between 1990 and 1994, Dr. Lochte was involved in scientific research at the institution, studying the colonization and activity of bacteria in sea ice.
From 1995 to 2007, Dr. Lochte lectured on biological oceanography at the University of Rostock and the University of Kiel. From 2000 to 2007, she was head of the Biological Oceanography research unit at the Leibniz-Institut für Meereswissenschaften. From 1995 to 2000, Dr. Lochte was head of a similar research unit at the Leibniz-Institut für Ostseeforschung in Warnemünde, Germany. In 1994, she received her venia legendi at the University of Bremen.
Prior to her professorship, Dr. Lochte worked on the topic "Deep Sea Microbiology" from 1985 to 1990 at the Institut für Meereskunde at the University of Kiel. She received her Ph.D. in marine biology at the University College of North Wales in the United Kingdom in 1984.
Born in Aasiaat, Greenland, in 1947, Aqqaluk Lynge has represented the Inuit of Alaska, Canada, Greenland and the far east of Russia as president of the Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC) from 1997 to 2002 and as international chair from 2010 to 2014. Mr. Lynge started his professional career as a social worker after graduating from the National Danish School of Social Work in 1976. After teaching at the Greenland Social-Pedagogical College, he was a radio journalist until he entered Greenland politics. He has promoted the rights of indigenous peoples, both in his home country of Greenland and globally, since his youth. He has also demonstrated a deep commitment to pan-Inuit unity since the early 1970s, and before becoming ICC president he served as a continuous member of the ICC executive council since 1980.
Mr. Lynge served in the Greenland Parliament from 1983 to 1995 and again from 2002 to 2005, and has served both as a member of Parliament and as a minister of various portfolios. Mr. Lynge is widely published, having written books of poetry and essays and books about politics. He has also contributed to several works and anthologies written in Greenlandic, Danish, English, French, Nordic and other languages.
Mr. Lynge was instrumental in bringing Russian Inuit into the ICC family when, as early as 1984, he traveled to Moscow to lobby for their inclusion. In 1988, he visited Chukotka in the northeast area of the Soviet Union where most of Russia's Inuit live. He has been an invited speaker at a wide range of international human rights forums, at wildlife management conferences, environmental and climate summits, Arctic Council ministers' summits and other gatherings.
Mr. Lynge was an expert member and vice chair at the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues from 2005 to 2007. He was awarded an honorary doctor of humane letters at Dartmouth College in 2012.
Mr. Lynge resides in Nuuk, Greenland, with his family.
Michael Macrander currently serves as chief scientist for Shell Alaska. In this role, he is responsible for planning, directing and implementing a diverse portfolio of scientific investigations and monitoring in the Alaskan Arctic.
This portfolio includes both onshore and offshore studies programs and is directed at understanding broad baseline environmental and ecological conditions, monitoring and assessing interactions between industry activities and the environment and assessing impacts of an overall changing Arctic.
The investigative program includes physical sciences such as oceanography, ice dynamics and weather, as well as biological sciences of all trophic levels and ecological interactions. This program is a very significant source of funding for Arctic science and has contributed to the development of extensive ocean instrumentation networks, including acoustic arrays, metocean buoy arrays, ice tracking and high-frequency radar.
Through his more than 30-year career, Dr. Macrander has focused his investigative efforts on multiple aspects of environmental ecology, management and regulation including wetlands, threatened and endangered protection, ecological risk evaluation and evaluation of the impacts of oil spills.
In the capacity of chief scientist at Shell Alaska, he has been a leader in the development of effective dialog and the exchange of scientific information between industry and the regulatory and stakeholder communities.
Bjarni Már Magnússon joined Reykjavík University School of Law as a member of the academic staff in August 2012. He holds degrees from the University of Edinburgh, the University of Miami and the University of Iceland. Dr. Magnússon teaches public international law and the international Law of the Sea.
Dr. Magnússon's research interests span several areas of international law, including the Law of the Sea, the relationship between domestic and international law, international environmental law and dispute settlement. He is particularly interested in the legal aspects of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles. He has published widely on these topics, most recently in the International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law and the International and Comparative Law Quarterly.
Simon Marsden specializes in transboundary governance: international law, relations and politics in Asian, Australasian, European and polar contexts, and with particular reference to the Espoo, Aarhus and World Heritage conventions. His Ph.D. dissertation, "Legislative Environmental Assessment: An Evaluation of Procedure and Context with Reference to Canada and the Netherlands," relates to strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Assessment of policies and legislation is receiving increasing attention since the UNECE SEA Protocol came into force and following European Commission impact assessment experience.
Dr. Marsden has general research interests in environmental law and policy, environmental planning and management and the relationship between legal systems and law and politics. These relate to domestic law in federal, unitary and mixed systems (for instance, Australia, England and Hong Kong) and international and European Union law. Specific research interests focus on strategic and transboundary approaches to environmental impact assessment (EIA), terrestrial and marine protected areas, public participation and access to justice, and treaty-based non-compliance procedures. Recent work considers comparative approaches to these matters in Europe, Asia, Australasia and Antarctica.
Reflecting these interests, Dr. Marsden has published in a wide range of law and policy science journals, including the International and Comparative Law Quarterly, the Nordic Journal of International Law, the Review of European Community and International Environmental Law, the Chinese Journal of International Law, the Hong Kong Law Journal, the LawAsia Journal, the Asia Pacific Journal of Environmental Law, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, the Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management and the Australasian Journal of Environmental Management. He is a frequent book reviewer, with reviews in many journals.
Ghislaine Maxwell is president and founder of The TerraMar Project (TMP), a Web-based nonprofit organized to protect the ocean by empowering a global community of ocean citizens. In addition to promoting awareness and responsibility on the high seas, TMP collaborates with Michael Dorsey, Global Partnerships Forum and Ambassador Stuart Beck to make the ocean part of the 2015 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.
Through unique and engaging tools, The Ocean Pledge and the education platform, TMP enables ocean supporters all over the world to show their commitment to sustainable ocean management. TMP also publishes an online daily newspaper called The Daily Catch that aggregates all the best marine and water news from around the world and populates all social media.
Ms. Maxwell is also president of Ellmax, a global consulting firm. She has most recently spoken on CNN and Bloomberg and at the United Nations regarding the high seas and TMP.
She holds a bachelor of arts and a master of arts from Oxford University. She is a private helicopter pilot, a trained emergency medical technician (EMT) and a qualified remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV) and DeepWorker submarine pilot. She speaks four languages: English, French, Spanish and Italian.
Larry Mayer is a professor and the director of the School for Marine Science and Ocean Engineering and the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping at the University of New Hampshire.
Dr. Mayer has participated in more than 90 cruises (over 70 months at sea!) and has been chief or co-chief scientist of numerous expeditions, including two legs of the Ocean Drilling Program and seven mapping expeditions in the ice-covered regions of the high Arctic. He has served on, or chaired, far too many international panels and committees and has the requisite large number of publications on a variety of topics in marine geology and geophysics.
He is the recipient of the Keen Medal for Marine Geology and an honorary doctorate from the University of Stockholm. He was a member of the President's Panel on Ocean Exploration and the National Science Foundation's advisory committee for the geosciences, and he chaired a National Academy of Science committee on national needs for coastal mapping and charting.
He is currently co-chair of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Ocean Exploration Advisory Working Group, vice-chair of the Consortium of Ocean Leadership's board of trustees and a member of the U.S. State Department's Extended Continental Shelf Task Force and is chairing a National Academy of Sciences committee on the impact of the Deepwater Horizon spill on ecosystem services in the Gulf of Mexico.
Dr. Mayer's current research deals with sonar imaging and remote characterization of the seafloor as well as advanced applications of 3-D visualization to ocean mapping problems and applications of mapping to Law of the Sea issues, particularly in the Arctic.
He graduated magna cum laude with an honors degree in geology from the University of Rhode Island and received a Ph.D. from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in marine geophysics.
Lesil McGuire grew up in the district she now represents as an Alaska state senator. With this lifelong perspective and her involvement with communities around the state, she truly understands the complexity of Alaskan life and the concerns of the state's people.
With an undergraduate degree and a juris doctor from Willamette University, Senator McGuire clerked for the United States Attorney's Office in Oregon, then returned to Alaska to work for the firm Birch, Horton, Bittner & Cherot. She began work for the Alaska Legislature as the counsel for the House Judiciary Committee. In 2001, at age 29, she was elected to the Alaska House of Representatives by an overwhelming 64 percent of her district, and in 2006 she was elected to the Senate, once again winning by a large margin with 66 percent of the vote. Senator McGuire has spent her last 12 years of service dedicated to improving the lives of all Alaskans.
Senator McGuire currently serves as co-chair of the Alaska Arctic Policy Commission (AAPC). This commission is comprised of 26 commissioners, including 10 legislators and 16 experts throughout the state. The purpose of the commission is to examine and identify the needs and concerns of Alaskans to formulate policy recommendations for the State, and to positively influence the United States's Arctic policy and ensure that Alaska's interests, as a sovereign state, are protected. In addition to these duties, Senator McGuire currently serves as chair of the Senate Rules Committee, as vice-chair of the Senate Judiciary Committee and as a member of the Senate Resources Committee, the Senate Trans-Alaska Pipeline Committee, the Senate World Trade Committee and the Legislative Council.
Senator McGuire served as both vice president and president of the Pacific Northwest Economic Region (PNWER), as chair of the Council of State Governments-WEST (CSG-WEST) and as chair of the Committee on the Future of Western Legislatures for CSG-WEST.
Paul D. Miller is a conceptual artist, writer and musician working in New York. He is most well known under the moniker of his "constructed persona" as DJ Spooky That Subliminal Kid.
Mr. Miller has recorded a huge volume of music and has collaborated with a wide variety of musicians and composers, such as Iannis Xenakis, Ryuichi Sakamoto, Kronos Quartet, Kool Keith (also known as Doctor Octagon), Pierre Boulez, Killa Priest from Wu-Tang Clan, Steve Reich, Yoko Ono and Thurston Moore from Sonic Youth, among many others.
His latest CD, "The Secret Song," was released in October 2009. All Music Guide wrote that "'The Secret Song' is the welcome return to recording by one of its most mercurially intelligent musicmakers. It may also be the only concept recording of the 21st century that can be considered crucial listening."
Mr. Miller traveled to Antarctica in December 2007 to gather sonic and visual materials for "Terra Nova: The Antarctic Suite," which was commissioned by the Brooklyn Academy of Music's Next Wave Festival, the Hopkins Center for the Arts at Dartmouth College, the Melbourne International Arts Festival and the University of California, Santa Barbara.
In 2011, Mr. Miller released a graphic design project titled "The Book of Ice" (Thames and Hudson/Mark Batty), which explores the impact of climate change on Antarctica through the prism of digital media and contemporary music compositions.
A multimedia installation, a music composition for string quartet and a book, "The Book of Ice" includes an introduction by bestselling author and quantum physicist Brian Greene, and was included in the 2011 Gwangju Biennial by Korean architect Seung H-Sang and Chinese dissident artist Ai Weiwei.
Scott Minerd joined Guggenheim in 1998 and serves as global CIO. Mr. Minerd is a member of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York's investor advisory committee on financial markets, an advisor to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and a contributing member of the World Economic Forum (WEF).
Previously Mr. Minerd was a managing director with Credit Suisse First Boston in charge of trading and risk management for the Fixed Income Credit Trading Group. Mr. Minerd has also held capital markets positions with Morgan Stanley, Merrill Lynch and Continental Bank. Prior to that, he was a certified public accountant and worked for the public accounting firm Price Waterhouse.
Mr. Minerd holds a bachelor of science in economics from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and has completed graduate work at the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business and the Wharton School.
David James Molden joined the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) as director general effective December 2011.
Dr. Molden is a development specialist with more than 30 years of experience in designing, planning, executing and monitoring programs on water management, livelihoods, the environment and ecosystem services.
Prior to joining ICIMOD, he was the deputy director general for research at the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) based in Sri Lanka. He has worked in several Hindu Kush-Himalayan countries, including China, India, Nepal and Pakistan, and has experience in projects in the Indus, Ganges, Yellow, Mekong, Yangtze and Amu and Syr Darya river basins.
He has acquired considerable management experience in a number of positions, including chief of party for the Irrigation Management Project in Nepal, chief of party for a water resources strategic research program in Egypt, and leader of the multi-institute Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture program.
Dr. Molden was awarded a Ph.D. in civil engineering from Colorado State University in 1987 specializing in water resources, and has since developed broader interests in integrating social, technical and environmental aspects of natural resources management. He has contributed to the publication of nearly 200 works in books, refereed journals, research and project report series, the media and educational materials. He has received many awards, including the Outstanding Scientist Award of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) in 2009.
Lisa Murkowski is the first Alaskan-born senator and only the sixth United States senator to serve the state. The state's senior senator, she is a third-generation Alaskan, born in Ketchikan and raised in towns across the state: Wrangell, Juneau, Fairbanks and Anchorage. Since joining the Senate in 2002, Senator Murkowski has been a strong advocate for Alaska on the important issues facing the state, including energy, health care, education, military/veterans' affairs and infrastructure development.
Only the 33rd female to serve in the United States Senate since its founding in 1789, Senator Murkowski has assumed leadership roles quickly. She is the senior Republican member of the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee and also serves on the Senate Appropriations Committee, where she is the ranking Republican of the Interior and Environment Subcommittee. Senator Murkowski is a member of the Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee—the first Alaskan to serve on that panel—and is also a senior member of the Senate Indian Affairs Committee.
She earned a bachelor of arts in economics from Georgetown University in 1980 and a law degree from Willamette University in 1985. Prior to her appointment to the United States Senate, Senator Murkowski practiced commercial law in Anchorage and served three terms in the Alaska House of Representatives. She was elected to a full six-year U.S. Senate term in 2004, and was re-elected in 2010 in a historic write-in campaign, the first successful write-in effort to the Senate since 1954.
Senator Murkowski is married to Verne Martell and they have two sons. She enjoys spending time with her family in the Alaska outdoors.
University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Vice Chancellor for Research Mark Myers is no stranger to large-scale science endeavors: the clastic sedimentologist came to UAF in January 2011 after three years as head of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a 9,000-person agency charged with conducting research into America's landscape, its natural resources and the natural hazards that threaten it. As vice chancellor for research, Dr. Myers now oversees administration for UAF's $123-million-a-year research enterprise and supervises the university's many research institutes.
Prior to his time with the USGS, Dr. Myers—an internationally recognized expert on North Slope petroleum geology—served as Alaska state geologist as well as director of the state Division of Oil and Gas. He's also worked in exploration and development positions with Chevron, ARCO and Phillips Petroleum. His tenure with the state is noteworthy for the important role he has played in ongoing efforts to commercialize Alaska's natural gas, including serving as statewide coordinator for the Alaska Gasline Inducement Act in 2009.
A native of La Crosse, Wisconsin, Dr. Myers holds bachelor's and master's degrees from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a Ph.D. in geology from UAF. Dr. Myers served for 26 years as a pilot and intelligence officer in the U.S. Air Force Reserve before retiring in 2003 as a lieutenant colonel.
Olav Orheim is a Norwegian polar scientist and manager. He received a Ph.D. in 1972 from Ohio State University, where he studied glacier records from Deception Island and climate change.
With a lifelong career in polar science, management and diplomacy, Dr. Orheim has held leadership positions in all international polar research organizations. He has written one book, numerous book chapters and about 80 research publications on glacier mass balance and climate, ice dynamics, icebergs, remote sensing and the politics and history of the polar regions.
He had led a large number of national and international committees, and for many years he served as chair of the Committee for Environmental Protection and thereafter the Working Group on Legal and Institutional Affairs under the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings. He led the Norwegian government's only public investigation into Arctic development and policies.
From 2005 to 2013, Dr. Orheim was in charge of International Polar Year funding at the Research Council of Norway. Before that, he was the managing director of the Norwegian Polar Institute (1993 to 2005) and an adjunct professor of glaciology at the University of Bergen (1989 to 2005).
Currently, he serves as chairman of the boards of GRID-Arendal (a center collaborating with the United Nations Environment Programme), the Polarship Fram Museum and the Norwegian Glacier Museum. He is also a member of the Scientific and Technical Committee of the Prince Albert II Foundation, the External Review team of the University of the Arctic, the SCAR Development Council and the International Science Panel of the New Zealand Antarctic Research Institute.
Dr. Orheim has received the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav and the l'Ordre de Saint-Charles of Monaco.
Rajendra K. Pachauri was elected chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in April 2002 and reelected by acclamation in 2008. The IPCC was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme in 1988.
An economist and industrial engineer by training, Dr. Pachauri has been actively involved with energy and climate issues for nearly 40 years. He wrote his first book about energy in 1975 and co-edited his first book about climate change in 1992. He has participated in numerous international forums dealing with the subject of climate change and its policy dimensions and has an extensive academic career addressing the same issues. He has co-authored 130 papers, a large number of which are peer-reviewed, and written or co-written 27 books, most of them about energy and the environment.
Dr. Pachauri is also head of TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute), which he joined in 1982, first as director and since April 2001 as director-general. TERI conducts original research and provides knowledge about energy, the environment, forestry, biotechnology and natural resource conservation to governments, institutions and corporate organizations worldwide.
In January 2008, the president of India awarded him the Padma Vibhushan, India's second-highest civilian honor, for his services in the field of science and engineering. To acknowledge his contributions to the field of the environment, he was awarded the Padma Bhushan by the president of India in January 2001.
He was also bestowed the Officier de la Légion d'Honneur by the Government of France in 2006; the Commander of the Order of Leopold II by the king of Belgium in July 2009; the Commander of the Order of the White Rose of Finland by the prime minister of Finland in February 2010; the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold and Silver Star, by His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, in April 2010; and the Mexican Order of the Aztec Eagle by the president of Mexico in June 2012. In July 2013, he was conferred with the Pico della Mirandola Prize by the Foundation Cassa di Risparmio di Mirandola.
Frederik Paulsen is chairman of the board of directors of Ferring Pharmaceuticals and the company's executive chairman. He has been with Ferring since 1976, becoming managing director of Ferring AB in Sweden in 1983 and chief executive officer of the Ferring Group in 1988.
He is also the founder of Paulsen Editions, which publishes and markets adventure stories, short stories, essays and novels that explore extreme regions of the Arctic, the Antarctic and Siberia.
In addition, Mr. Paulsen serves as treasurer and a trustee of Friends of the Royal Textile Academy of Bhutan, a trustee of the Salk Institute of Biological Research, a trustee of the South Georgia Heritage Trust, and a member of the board of overseers of the Tufts University School of Medicine and the Sackler School of Biomedical Sciences.
He is a member of the Explorers Club in New York and an honorary member of the Polar Explorers Association in Moscow.
Mr. Paulsen studied chemistry at the Christian-Albrechts-University in Kiel, Germany, and business administration at the University of Lund in Sweden.
Steinar Pedersen was born in 1947 in the Sámi village Deanodat (Vestertana) in Finnmark County, Norway. He has a doctoral degree in history from the University of Tromsø and is the author of "The Lapp Codicil in the Far North, 1751–1859," which deals with the rights of the Sámi people, in accordance with customary law, to use the renewable resources on each side of the border between Sweden (Finland) and Norway.
For many years, Dr. Pedersen was a researcher at the Nordic Sámi Institute in Guovdageaidnu (Kautokeino), Norway. There he worked with subjects concerning Sámi maritime and land rights, basic salmon-fishing rights in the Tana River, Sámi border-crossing rights and the impact of Norwegian nationalism on Sámi material and cultural rights.
From 2007 to 2011, Dr. Pedersen served as rector at Sámi University College. He has been a state secretary in the ministry of local government and regional development; a member of the Sámi Parliament of Norway; a member of the municipality board in Deatnu (Tana), Norway; a member of the county council of Finnmark, Norway; and a deputy to the Norwegian parliament. In addition, he has participated in different commissions preparing new laws on Sámi material and cultural rights.
At present, Dr. Pedersen is chair of the program council of NRK Sápmi, the Sámi radio and TV channel in Norway, and a member of the broadcasting council of the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK). During the summers, he fishes for salmon in a traditional manner in the Tanafjord.
Dmitry Pourim is the chief executive officer of Sovfracht JSC and chairman of the board of directors of Sovmortrans CJSC.
Mr. Pourim joined the Sovfracht-Sovmortrans group of companies in 1998, assuming responsibility for managing the business, including development of the company's strategy and restructuring. His experience in management spans 20 years.
Mr. Pourim graduated with honors from the Ministry of Transport of Russia, from the Government of Moscow and from the administrative department of Sea and River Fleet.
Jörg Ranau has served as deputy director-general for economic affairs and sustainable development for the Federal Foreign Office of Germany since July 2011. He was ambassador of Germany to Singapore from 2008 to 2011 and German representative to the Palestinian Authority from 2006 to 2008.
From 2002 to 2006, Mr. Ranau was head of the Department for Nuclear Non-Proliferation, Nuclear Policy and Energy Policy for the Federal Foreign Office. Previously, from 2000 to 2002, he served as head of the Economics and Business Promotion Department at the German embassy in London. Before that, he served in a variety of civil service roles for the German government in Berlin and Bonn, Germany; Madrid, Spain; and Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Mr. Ranau received a master of economics and business administration from the University of Hannover in 1981 and trained at the Diplomatic Academy at the Federal Foreign Office in Bonn from 1982 to 1984. He was a member of the German Air Force from 1974 to 1976 at the NATO Headquarters for Central Europe in Brunssum, Netherlands.
He was born July 2, 1955, in Hannover, Germany. He is married and has two children.
Michel Rocard is a former French prime minister (1988–1991) and a member of the French Socialist party. In addition to national prominence, Mr. Rocard has also held two chairs at the European Parliament—in the Committee of Employment and Social Affairs and the Committee of Culture, Youth, Education, Media and Sports. He was the European deputy member of the Committee for Foreign Affairs and is currently ambassador of the polar regions.
Theodore L. Rockwell lives and works in Anchorage, Alaska, serving to coordinate the Battelle Memorial Institute's activities throughout Alaska and the Arctic. He has over 30 years of federal service with the Environmental Protection Agency and is experienced in working with multidisciplinary projects for infrastructure and facilities related to energy exploration, development, production and transportation. Experience includes work with all the federal permitting programs associated with oil and gas projects in Alaska, onshore and offshore.
Within days of the Macondo oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, he was called by the Executive Office of the President and secunded to the Council on Environmental Quality. He was deputy director leading the review of the environmental protection practices in the offshore Gulf of Mexico, specifically focusing on the Minerals Management Service's NEPA policies, practices and procedures. This work resulted in the CEQ report published August 16, 2010, and in turn the restructuring of the U.S. Department of the Interior's management of offshore resources.
Mr. Rockwell is a member of many professional and governmental organizations, including the Arctic Institute of North America, the American Polar Society, the Institute of the North, the National Association of Environmental Professionals, the Society of Petroleum Engineers, the American Society of Civil Engineers, and the Alaska Resource Development Council.
He has also served on the Arctic Work Group of the World Ocean Council, the advisory committee of the Arctic Alliance, the board of directors of the Alaska Association of Environmental Professionals, the advisory council of Cook Inlet Regional Citizens and the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission.
Alice Rogoff is publisher and owner of Alaska Dispatch Publishing, which produces the leading journalism site AlaskaDispatch.com. She is also a co-founder of the Arctic Circle, a new open assembly designed to facilitate broad international dialogue and foster greater cooperation on Arctic issues. This new organization is led by President Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson of Iceland. It grew out of the two Arctic Imperative Summits hosted by Alaska Dispatch in 2011 and 2012.
In 2002, she co-founded and became chairman of the Alaska Native Arts Foundation, which she continues to help lead as a long-term board member. In 2008, Ms. Rogoff also founded the Alaska House NY, a nonprofit "virtual embassy" that she undertook to promote understanding of the economic issues and opportunities facing the state, including long-term development of the Arctic.
Other business activities have included serving as chairman of the board of Scene7, a digital imaging software company, and founding the Artist Impressions, a company that licenses original works of art for interior design uses.
Other commitments have included serving as a trustee of the Carter Center in Atlanta; as a member of the council of the National Museum of the American Indian; as a member of the National Geographic Society's council of advisors; and formerly as a trustee and the treasurer of the National Symphony Orchestra. She has also served on the boards of the Potomac School, National Child Research Center, and the Center for Excellence in Government, among other organizations. She holds a master of business administration from Harvard Business School.
Ms. Rogoff is married to David M. Rubenstein, and they have three grown children. She resides in Anchorage, Alaska.
As a pilot of her Cessna 206, Ms. Rogoff delights in exploring the vast state of Alaska with journalists and photographers.
Minik Rosing was born in 1957 in Nuuk, Greenland. He received a Ph.D. in geology from the University of Copenhagen. He is a visiting fellow at Harvard University and a visiting scholar and a Cox visiting professor at Stanford University.
Dr. Rosing has organized more than 20 geologic field expeditions to all parts of Greenland. His interests include the emergence and evolution of life on Earth and the effect of biologic processes on the geochemical evolution of Earth.
He is the chairman of the working group for the sustainable exploitation of mineral resources in Greenland at the University of Greenland (Ilisimatusarfik) and the University of Copenhagen.
Enric Sala is a National Geographic explorer-in-residence actively engaged in exploration, research and communications to advance ocean policy and conservation. His more than 100 scientific publications are widely recognized and used for real-world conservation efforts such as the creation of marine reserves.
Dr. Sala is currently working to help protect the last pristine marine ecosystems worldwide, and to develop new business models for marine conservation. He conducts expeditions to some of the most remote places in the ocean to carry out the first comprehensive scientific surveys of these pristine areas and obtain a baseline of what the ocean used to be like. Working together with conservation organizations, Dr. Sala was key in inspiring the creation of large marine protected areas such as the Pacific Remote Atolls National Monument in the United States, the Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park in Chile, and the Seamounts Marine Managed Area in Costa Rica.
Dr. Sala is a 2005 Aldo Leopold Leadership Fellow; a 2006 Pew Fellow in Marine Conservation; a 2008 Young Global Leader at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland; and a winner of the 2013 Research Award of the Spanish Geographical Society and the 2013 Lowell Thomas Award of the Explorers Club. He also received the 2006 Prince of Asturias Award to Communication and Humanities with National Geographic. Dr. Sala's experience and scientific expertise contributes to his service on advisory boards of international organizations and governments.
Dr. Sala obtained his Ph.D. in ecology from the University of Aix-Marseille, France, in 1996.
Pavel Salyuk graduated from Far Eastern Federal University in 2003 with a master's degree in molecular spectroscopy. He received a Ph.D. in optics in 2005 and became the head of the laboratory of Lasers and Ocean Spectroscopy in the Pacific Oceanological Institute by V. I. Ilichev of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Science.
Since 2011, he has also been the deputy director of the newly organized Research Institute of Marine Transport of Maritime State University Named After Admiral G. I. Nevelskoi.
Dr. Salyuk has taken part in the work of the Far Eastern Floating University since 2001, when he was a student. He participated in dozens of expeditions in the seas of the Northwestern Pacific and in the Around the World Expedition at the sail-ship Nadezhda in 2003 and 2004. In 2013, he served as the head of the scientific group at the Far Eastern Floating University in the Eastern Arctic of Russia.
Since joining Google in 2001, Eric Schmidt has helped grow the company from a Silicon Valley startup to a global leader in technology. As executive chairman, he is responsible for the external matters of Google: building partnerships and broader business relationships, government outreach and technology thought leadership, as well as advising the CEO and senior leadership on business and policy issues.
From 2001 to 2011, Mr. Schmidt served as Google's chief executive officer, overseeing the company's technical and business strategy alongside founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page. Under his leadership, Google dramatically scaled its infrastructure and diversified its product offerings while maintaining a strong culture of innovation.
Prior to joining Google, Mr. Schmidt was the chairman and CEO of Novell and chief technology officer at Sun Microsystems Inc. Previously he served on the research staff at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), Bell Laboratories and Zilog. He holds a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering from Princeton University as well as a master's degree and Ph.D. in computer science from the University of California, Berkeley.
Mr. Schmidt is a member of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology and the Prime Minister's Advisory Council in the United Kingdom. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2006 and inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences as a fellow in 2007. He also chairs the board of the New America Foundation, and since 2008 has been a trustee of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.
Kristinn Schram is the director of the Centre for Arctic Policy Studies (CAPS) at the Institute of International Affairs at the University of Iceland, where he is also a postdoctoral researcher.
He is a former researcher at EDDA—Center of Excellence and the Reykjavík Academy and the former director of the Icelandic Centre for Ethnology and Folklore. He received his Ph.D. in ethnology from the University of Edinburgh in 2010.
Dr. Schram conducts RANNIS- and EDDA-funded research titled "Borealism and Beyond" with researcher Katla Kjartansdóttir, focusing on mobile people and contested constructions of the North in relation to national, cultural and gender identities and transnational interaction before and after the economic crash.
He conducts and coordinates research, publications, events and networks on Arctic discourses, their practice and relationship in policy-making, society and culture in the High North.
Gylfi Sigfússon, born in 1961, was appointed president and chief executive officer of Eimskip in May 2008. He has worked for Eimskip and related companies in Iceland and the United States since 1990.
He received a Cand.oecon degree in business from the University of Iceland in 1990 and has various diplomas in the logistics trade.
Mr. Sigfússon managed Eimskip Americas, overseeing all of Eimskip's transport operations in the United States and Canada. He was the CEO of Eimskip Logistics in the United States from 2000 to 2006 and was an executive vice president of Ambrosio Shipping from 1996 to 2000. Mr. Sigfússon was an executive vice president of marketing and operations at Tollvörugeymslan in Iceland, now TVG-Zimsen, from 1990 to 1996.
Mr. Sigfússon has led a restructuring of the Eimskip group during the last five years, focusing on creating a new vision for the company and rebuilding it as the main carrier in the North Atlantic container trade. The company is focused on liner services and projects in the North Atlantic and on being a worldwide freight forwarding and non-vessel operating common carrier (NVOCC) operator.
Mr. Sigfússon serves on the boards of the Iceland Chamber of Commerce, the Icelandic-American Chamber of Commerce and the Icelandic Greenland Chamber of Commerce. He is also a board member or CEO, or both, of various subsidiaries of the Eimskip Group. Eimskip currently operates 51 offices in 19 countries.
Mikhail Slipenchuk was born on January 20, 1966, in the Altai region of Russia. From 1982 to 1987, he studied at the Faculty of Geography of Moscow State University, majoring in environmental protection and the rational exploitation of natural resources. In 1994, he became an associate professor of geography.
In 1995, Mr. Slipenchuk founded Investment Financial Company METROPOL (IFC METROPOL), remaining director-general until 2011.
In 2010, Mr. Slipenchuk defended his Ph.D. thesis at the Systems Analysis Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In 2011, he was appointed professor and then chairman of environmental management in the Department of Geography at Moscow State University.
In March 2011, he was elected to the local council in the Republic of Buryatia (Eastern Siberia). In December 2011, he was elected to the lower house of the Russian Parliament, where he was appointed as deputy chairman of the Natural Resources and Ecology Committee. He became the head of the Arctic parliamentary group, the coordinator of the group for cooperation with Japan and a member of the group Baikal.
Mr. Slipenchuk is a correspondent member of the International Academy of Ecology, Human and Nature Protection Sciences. Since 1985, he has been a member of the Russian Geographical Society. He is also chairman of the board of trustees of the Fund for Protection of Lake Baikal. He is married and has two children.
Mark L. Smith is the CEO and owner of Vitus Energy. He is a fourth-generation Arctic entrepreneur, with family working in both the Yukon and Nome areas during Alaska and Canada's gold rush days.
He began work in the Bering Sea in 1973, participating in commercial fishing as well as tug and barge delivery of freight and fuel. Following completion of an undergraduate degree in business administration in 1983, Mr. Smith completed an executive master of business administration in 2002.
Through various mergers and acquisitions, Mr. Smith has served as president of Yukon Fuel Company, as a board member of Northland Holdings Group, as vice president of sales and marketing for Crowley Petroleum, and as CEO of Pacific Fishing Assets. He formed Vitus Marine in 2009 and continues to develop a diversified fuel distribution business serving the North Pacific and Arctic regions.
Vitus Marine is part of the Vitus Energy LLC group of companies, which also includes Great Circle Flight Services, Central Alaska Energy, Pacific Fishing Assets and Vitus Terminals. The core service offering of Vitus Marine is the delivery of refined petroleum to the western regions of Alaska, from the Aleutians to the Northwest Arctic. Customers include the fishing industry, electric utilities, local governments and shore-based fuel distributors.
Ekaterina Sokolova studied at the Tomsk Polytechnical University in the Physics and Engineering Department, specializing in nuclear physics and elementary particles. After 2006, she finished her education in Vladivostok, Russia, at the Far Eastern Federal University in the Department of Physics, where she studied molecular spectroscopy. She received a master's degree in 2008 and a Ph.D. in laser physics in 2013.
Currently Dr. Sokolova works in the Institute of Automation and Control Processes of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Science (IACP FEB RAS), Far Eastern State University and Maritime State University Named After Admiral G. I. Nevelskoi. In 2013, she was a member of the organizing committee and the scientific secretary of the Far Eastern Floating University in the Russian Eastern Arctic.
Dr. Sokolova is vegetarian and actively follows the problems of the regional development of the Eastern Arctic, taking in mind all factors of ecological problems.
Naja Carina Steenholdt was born in Horsens, Denmark, in 1983. She was raised in Aasiaat and Sisimiut, Greenland, until 1992, when her family moved to Denmark.
Today, Ms. Steenholdt lives in Nuuk, Greenland, with her love, Christian, and their two dogs. She studies social sciences at the University of Greenland and works in the Greenlandic government in human resources. In between studies and her job, she works with youngsters and children.
She is an autodidact painter and drawer and works primarily with inspiration from native Greenlandic culture.
Eric Steig is a professor of Earth and space sciences and director of the Quaternary Research Center at the University of Washington. He is a glaciologist who specializes in the use of the chemistry of ice cores from the polar regions.
Dr. Steig's work includes the dynamics of climate in the polar regions and the development of novel analytical methods for observing environmental change. He has led field campaigns in Antarctica, Greenland, the Canadian Arctic and alpine regions.
He is a co-founder and regular contributor to the influential climate science website RealClimate.org. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Washington in 1996.
Philip Steinberg is professor of political geography and acting director of the International Boundaries Research Unit at Durham University in the United Kingdom.
Professor Steinberg has written extensively on the history of the Law of the Sea and its development in the context of regional and global uses and perceptions of maritime space. He has published widely on this topic and in related areas of communications law and polar politics, with research being funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, the European Commission and the International Council for Canadian Studies.
He has authored six books and more than 50 journal publications and book chapters, including the forthcoming publications "Steering Between Scylla and Charybdis: The Northwest Passage as Territorial Sea" (Ocean Development and International Law), "Contesting the Arctic: Politics and Imaginaries in the Circumpolar North" (I.B. Tauris), and "Maintaining Hegemony at a Distance: Ambivalence in U.S. Arctic Policy" (in Polar Geopolitics, Edward Elgar).
His previous books include "The Social Construction of the Ocean" (Cambridge University Press, 2001), "Managing the Infosphere: Governance, Technology and Cultural Practice in Motion" (Temple University Press, 2008), and "What Is a City? Rethinking the Urban After Hurricane Katrina" (University of Georgia Press, 2008).
He holds a Ph.D. in geography from Clark University and, prior to his appointment at Durham, taught for 16 years in the Department of Geography at Florida State University.
Andrey Suleykov has more than 20 years of experience serving in senior positions at major media companies (television, publishing houses and printing). He has implemented bold, cross-media projects in developing applications for mobile devices, with a focus on business development in various sectors. He enjoys traveling, windsurfing, kite surfing, snowboarding and biking as well as music.
Appreal develops mobile apps for tourism, investments and monetization. Its apps help promote tourism products, including products for travelers with disabilities. The company's portfolio includes business apps for the travel industry, interactive guides and regional presentations.
Gunnar Bragi Sveinsson has served as minister for foreign affairs and external trade since May 23, 2013, and as a member of the Parliament of Iceland for the Northwest constituency since 2009.
Minister Sveinsson was chairman of the parliamentary group of Iceland's Progressive Party from 2009 to 2013, a member of the foreign affairs committee from 2011 to 2013, a member of the special committee on the standing orders of Althingi from 2011 to 2013, a member of the industry committee from 2009 to 2011 and a political advisor to the minister of social affairs from 1997 to 1999.
He graduated from the University of Iceland in 1995 with a degree in economic sociology studies. Other work experience includes serving as a managing director of Abær from 2002 to 2007 and as editor of the district newspaper Einherji from 1991 to 1992.
Minister Sveinsson has been a member of the Northwest Cultural Board since 2008, a member of the board of the Icelandic Institute for High Technology since 2007, chairman of the board of the Association of Local Authorities in Northwest Iceland since 2006, chairman of the board of Norðurá since 2006, and chairman of Skagafjörður's data distribution company since 2006.
He has also served in various positions on behalf of local municipalities in Northwest Iceland since 1998.
Former Deputy Secretary of State Strobe Talbott's career spans the highest levels of journalism, government service and academia. President of the Brookings Institution since 2002, Mr. Talbott is an authority on global governance, nuclear arms control and U.S. foreign policy, with particular expertise in Russia and the former Soviet Union, Europe and South Asia.
For 21 years before joining the U.S. State Department, Mr. Talbott worked at Time magazine, where he served in an array of posts, including editor-at-large and foreign affairs columnist, Washington bureau chief, White House correspondent, State Department correspondent and Eastern Europe correspondent. While at Time, he was twice awarded the Edward Weintal Prize for distinguished diplomatic reporting.
Formerly the director of the Yale Center for the Study of Globalization, Mr. Talbott is currently chair of the U.S. State Department's Foreign Affairs Policy Board, a fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, a member of the Aspen Strategy Group and the chairman of the American Ditchley Foundation.
He is the author of 12 books, including most recently "Fast Forward: Ethics and Politics in the Age of Global Warming," co-authored with William Antholis, which was released in paperback in summer 2011.
Sam Tan Chin Siong was born in 1958. In 1983, he graduated from the National University of Singapore with a bachelor of arts.
Mr. Tan began his career at the People's Association. From 1983 to 1992, he undertook leadership positions in developing social development and the youth. From 1992 to 1997, he was the deputy executive director of the Chinese Development Assistance Council (CDAC), which strives to help the lower-income segment of society and academically weak students.
In 1997, Mr. Tan was appointed executive director of the CDAC, an appointment he relinquished when he was appointed to the Singapore government on July 1, 2009. From November 2007 to June 2009, he concurrently served as the chief executive officer of Business China, an entity which aims to strengthen the economic and cultural ties between Singapore and China.
For his outstanding contributions, Mr. Tan was awarded the Public Service Medal (PBM) in 2002.
Mr. Tan was elected into the 11th Parliament of Singapore on April 27, 2006, and serves as a Member of Parliament at the Tanjong Pagar GRC. From July 2006 to May 2009, he was a member of the Government Parliamentary Committee (GPC) on Health. He is currently a member of the GPC on Community, Development, Youth and Sports and Manpower.
On July 1, 2009, Mr. Tan was concurrently appointed parliamentary secretary for Trade and Industry and Information, Communications and the Arts. He was promoted to senior parliamentary secretary for Trade and Industry and Information, Communications and the Arts on November 1, 2010.
Aki Tonami is a researcher at the Nordic Institute of Asian Studies (NIAS) at the University of Copenhagen. She received her Ph.D. in environmental studies from the Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies at Kyoto University and her master of arts in environmental economics from Kyoto University. Her research interests include Arctic policies of Asian countries, development aid policy, environmental governance and international relations in Asia, particularly in Japan.
Mead Treadwell was elected as Alaska's lieutenant governor in November 2010. He is committed to helping Governor Sean Parnell strengthen Alaska's economy by filling the TransAlaska Pipeline, facilitating a gas pipeline, bringing affordable energy to Alaskans and standing up to the federal government to ensure access to our natural resources. On a national level, he has been influential in bringing about a national missile defense system, in shaping U.S. Arctic policy and in establishing circumpolar cooperation.
A graduate of Yale University and the Harvard Business School, Lt. Gov. Treadwell brings a record of private and public sector success to his job as lieutenant governor.
Lt. Gov. Treadwell is recognized as one of the world's Arctic policy experts. He was appointed to the United States Arctic Research Commission by President George W. Bush in 2001 and designated by the president as the commission's chair in 2006. Under his leadership, a new United States Arctic policy was developed and adopted by President Bush and is now being implemented by the current administration.
Other public sector contributions include serving as the city of Cordova's director of oil spill response during the Exxon Valdez oil spill crisis; working to launch the Prince William Sound Oil Spill Recovery Institute, the Prince William Sound Science Center and the Regional Citizens Advisory Council; and serving as Governor Wally Hickel's deputy commissioner for the Department of Environmental Conservation, where he helped to develop Alaska's oil spill regulations and established the environmental crime unit for the state.
As a private entrepreneur and investor, he has helped launch a series of technology, manufacturing and service companies including two publicly listed firms, and he was a founding member of the Yukon Pacific Corporation, which started the Alaska gas pipeline project.
With his late wife, Carol, he has three children. In her memory, he served as president of the Millennium Society, an international charity which raises scholarship funds and has established a series of scholarships in science education for young people in Alaska.
Sergio C. Trindade is a Brazilian/American global consultant on sustainable business with an accent on energy, the environment and technology management. He is a chemical engineer who is also trained in energy economics and international business.
Dr. Trindade was a member of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007. Currently he serves as an international consultant on sustainable business at SE2T International, which he founded in New York in 1991. He has also been the director of science and technology for International Fuel Technology since 2003.
Formerly, from 1986 to 1991, Dr. Trindade was the United Nations assistant secretary-general for science and technology and the executive director of the United Nations Center for Science and Technology for Development in New York, where he led an international secretariat of 32 people representing 20 different nationalities.
He has also served as an international independent consultant on energy and the environment and was the founding director of the first private technology center in Brazil at Promon.
Dr. Trindade received a master of science and a Ph.D. in chemical engineering, with minors in energy economics, technology management and international business, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He earned a bachelor of science in chemical engineering, with an engineering economics extension, from the University of Brazil.
Felix H. Tschudi, born in 1960, is the chairman and owner of the Tschudi Group.
Mr. Tschudi attended the Royal Norwegian Naval Academy and served as sub-lieutenant in the Royal Norwegian Navy. He earned a second mate's certificate from merchant navy colleges in the United Kingdom, a bachelor of science in economics from London School of Economics and an MBA from INSEAD, France.
Before joining the family shipping company, Tschudi & Eitzen, in 1989, Mr. Tschudi worked for the Vienna-based trading and finance house AWT, specializing in trade finance with Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union.
Mr. Tschudi is the chairman of Maritime Forum Oslofjord and the Centre for High North Logistics, a nonprofit research foundation focusing on transportation solutions in the Arctic. He is a member of the World Economic Forum's Global Agenda Council on the Arctic, the committee of the P&I Club Skuld, the board of the Norwegian publishing house Aschehoug & Co., the board of Northern Iron Ltd. (an ASX-listed iron ore mining company) and a former president of the Oslo Shipowners' Association.
Alexey Tsykarev has gone from being a member of the youth organization Nuori Karjala (Young Karelia) to heading the International Youth Association of Finno-Ugric Peoples, which includes 37 public organizations of Russia, Finland, Hungary and Estonia. Mr. Tsykarev has participated in a number of sessions of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues and the World Congress of Finno-Ugric Peoples. Mr. Tsykarev participated in a fellowship program on the rights of indigenous peoples in 2011 and was an indigenous intern in the Moscow office of the United Nations in 2012.
Mr. Tsykarev enjoys the respect of indigenous peoples and governments. He is an independent young expert possessing local, national and international experience and expertise. In March 2013, he became a member of the United Nations Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, an advisory body for the United Nations Human Rights Council. In August 2013, he was elected as a representative of the Republic of Karelia in the Barents Regional Youth Council. In May 2010, he became a coordinator for the Global Indigenous Youth Caucus. He is a member of the Journalist Union of Russia.
Mr. Tsykarev is a member of the Indigenous Peoples Council under the head of the Republic of Karelia. In 2013, he co-founded a center of cross-border cooperation. One of the aims of this center is to promote the well-being of Arctic and indigenous peoples and sustainable development. Mr. Tsykarev's interests include indigenous international affairs, indigenous rights, youth policies, media and the environment.
Fran Ulmer is the chair of the U.S. Arctic Research Commission. She recently retired as chancellor of the University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA).
In June 2010, she was appointed by President Barack Obama to the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling. The commission was charged with investigating the causes of the explosion and oil spill, and recommending changes to prevent future disasters from occurring.
Prior to her appointment to the commission, Ms. Ulmer was a member of the Aspen Institute's Commission on Arctic Climate Change and held board positions with the Alaska Nature Conservancy, the National Parks Conservation Association and the Union of Concerned Scientists. Prior to being appointed chancellor in 2007, Ms. Ulmer was a distinguished visiting professor of public policy and director of the Institute of Social and Economic Research at UAA.
Ms. Ulmer served as an elected official for 18 years as the mayor of Juneau, a state representative and the lieutenant governor of Alaska. As director of policy development for the State of Alaska, Ms. Ulmer managed multiple programs and served as the first co-chair of the Alaska Coastal Policy Council.
At the national level, Ms. Ulmer served for more than 10 years on the North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission, as a member of the Federal Communications Commission's state and local advisory committee and as a member of the Federal Elections Commission's state advisory committee, and she co-chaired the National Academy of Science's Committee on State Voter Registration Databases.
Ms. Ulmer earned a juris doctor, cum laude, from the University of Wisconsin Law School and has been a fellow at the Institute of Politics at the Kennedy School of Government.
Johan van de Gronden has directed Wereld Natuur Fonds, or World Wildlife Fund (WWF) Netherlands, since 2006. His previous work includes the United Nations, the Dutch development organization SNV, and the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
WWF is one of the world's largest and most respected independent conservation organizations, with over 5 million supporters and a global network active in over 100 countries.
WWF's mission is to stop the degradation of the Earth's natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature, by conserving the world's biological diversity, ensuring that the use of renewable natural resources is sustainable and promoting the reduction of pollution and wasteful consumption.
Anton Vasiliev is a senior Russian diplomat. In January 2008 he became ambassador at large for Arctic cooperation at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. He is also the senior Arctic official of Russia in the Arctic Council and in the Barents Euro-Arctic Council (BEAC). He was chairman of the Committee of Senior Officials of BEAC during Russian chairmanship of the council between 2007 and 2009.
From 2002 to 2007 he was deputy head of Mission of the Russian Federation in Geneva, and from 1996 to 2002 he was deputy director of the Department for Security and Disarmament Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in Moscow.
Between 1976 and 1996, he had three postings at the USSR and Russian embassy in Beijing. He graduated from the Moscow State Institute of International Relations in 1976 and received a Ph.D. in economics in 1986 from the USSR Academy of Sciences.
David Vaughan is a world-renowned scientist working at the British Antarctic Survey, and is most notable for his contributions to the study of ice sheets in Antarctica. Dr. Vaughan studied at the University of Cambridge and completed his Ph.D. on Antarctic ice shelves with the Open University. He was made an honorary professor with the University of Wales Swansea.
In 2004 and 2005, Dr. Vaughan was the United Kingdom's principal investigator and the field-party leader for U.K.-U.S. collaboration to complete an airborne geophysical survey of the least-visited part of West Antarctica. Dr. Vaughan leads the British Antarctic Survey's IceSheets science program, a group of more than 20 scientists trying to better understand the loss of ice from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. He is the coordinating lead author of the Fifth Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Working Group I. (He was also coordinating lead author of the Fourth Assessment of the IPCC, Working Group II.)
Dr. Vaughan is the program coordinator for the ice2sea program, a flagship program funded by the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme. Ice2sea brings together the European Union's scientific and operational expertise from 24 leading institutions across Europe and beyond. Improved projections of the contribution of ice to sea level rise produced by this major program have informed the fifth IPCC report. In 2007, the fourth IPCC report highlighted ice sheets as the most significant remaining uncertainty in projecting sea level rise.
Ross A. Virginia is an environmental scientist studying climate change in the Arctic and Antarctic and its effects on the carbon cycle and life in soils. He directs the Institute of Arctic Studies within the Dickey Center for International Understanding at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States.
He is active in Arctic policy as a co-director of the University of the Arctic Institute for Applied Circumpolar Policy and in the development of new interdisciplinary approaches for training graduate students to work in the Arctic as partners with indigenous peoples. Part of this effort includes new collaborations to bring the arts and sciences together to increase public awareness of the rapid environmental and social changes confronting the Arctic.
He has worked with DJ Spooky, also known as Paul Miller, on projects linking music, history, science, film and writing to bring new audiences to explore and better appreciate the polar regions.
Tandong Yao is the director of the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research at the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Previously he was the director of the Lanzhou Glaciological Institute, and before that the director of the Cold and Arid Regions Environment and Engineering Research Institute.
With his administrative skills and scientific research background, Dr. Yao has participated in the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China, and he now holds a position as a member of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).
Dr. Yao is internationally acknowledged as one of the leading glaciologists in the study of alpine glaciers. He has carried out different projects relating to the environment in the past 20 years, focusing mainly on the reconstruction of the paleo-climate and environment on the Tibetan Plateau from ice core records.
He and his colleagues found that abrupt climatic changes occurred in the tropical-subtropical region on different timescales, from 100 years to 10,000 years, and in different climate conditions, from glacial stage to inter-glacial stages. Each of the events lasted about 200 years, and the magnitude of the temperature changes of each event was about 8 degrees Celsius. These climatic events appeared within a very short time period. Some even appeared within 30 to 50 years.
They identified the air temperature increase as 0.5 to 1.0 degrees Celsius in the low-mid latitude in the past 50 years. They also found that the magnitude of the temperature increase is larger at the high-altitude region than the low-altitude region. This achievement enables the prediction of future climatic trends by monitoring current temperatures at the high-altitude region, so as to adjust timely to the changing environment of the region. Their study also confirms the positive correlation between stable oxygen isotopes in precipitation and air temperature.
Dr. Yao has also studied methane history in the mid-low latitudes based on ice core reconstruction and verifies that the methane concentration produced in the mid-low latitudes is higher than the polar regions. He further proposes that the methane produced in the tropical-subtropical forest and wetland as the major cause, considering it responsible for the global changes of methane in the atmosphere.